Unit Overview:

                    How Can We Minimize the Warming Effects of the  Sun?

In the design challenge at the end of this unit, students will be asked to use tools and materials to design and build an object that will keep ice water cold for 30 minutes when placed in direct sunlight. To prepare for the challenge, students will test different materials to determine how well they keep an ice cube insulated. They will compare their insulated ice cube to a control ice cube in direct sunlight and record the weight of the insulated cube each minute up to 20 minutes. In the final Design Challenge they will create a container for ice water that will attempt to keep the water at the same temperature for 30 minutes. Student teams will share their results, and compare and contrast differences between each team’s approaches in solving the problem. Student teams will explain to an audience how their designs effectively minimized the warming effects of the sun and how the concepts of weight and temperature helped them in their analysis.

Educational outcomes

  • Students will use given scientific information about sunlight’s warming effect on the Earth’s surface to collaboratively design and build a structure that reduces warming caused by the sun.
  • With support, students individually describe:
    • The problem
    • The design solution
    • In what way the design solution uses the given scientific information.
  • Students will describe specific features of the design solution
  • Students will describe that the structure is expected to reduce warming for a designated item by providing insulation
  • Students will use only the given materials and tools when building the structure.
  • Students will evaluate potential solutions from each other.
  • Students will describe whether the structure meets the expectations in terms of cause (structure blocks sunlight) and effect (less warming).

STEAM INTEGRATION

In Lesson 1, the Empathy phase, students gain curiosity about the heat of the sun and how sunlight warms the Earth’s surface. Student teams learn together by asking questions, making observations, and gathering information for why somethings are insulated from the heat of the sun and how people developed new objects or tools to address these situations (for instance: umbrellas, canopies, tents, lunchboxes, water bottles, etc.); (NGSS K-2-ETS1-1). In Lesson 2, the Define phase, students examine different materials that might be useful for insulating an ice cube from the heat of the sun. They draw and compare an insulated ice cube to that of a control ice cube as each melts; (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1) and (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.2). In Lesson 3, the Design Challenge or Ideate, Prototype, and Test phases, student teams iterate on a design prototyping it, testing it, and redesigning it until all requirements are met to design an insulator for a container using materials that minimize the effects of sunlight on a container of ice water when the container is placed in direct sunlight (NGSS K-PS3-2). The final design compares the temperature of the water inside the insulated container to the temperature of the water inside the non-insulated container after 30 minutes to verify which design material worked best [(NGSS K-2-ETS1-2), (NGSS K-2-ETS1-3. ), (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1) and (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.2).

Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Unit Materials

Building Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box       -or-

One of the same water bottle or plastic cup per team, ice trays, ice water, access to a freezer, scissors, weight scale, timers, thermometer, ruler or measuring tape, various materials (e.g., foil, plastic wrap, bubble wrap, paper, felt, fabrics, etc.)

Connecting Materials

e.g., paperclips, binder clips, tape, glue, thread, yarn, adhesive foam pads, wooden stir sticks, straws, spoons, pipettes, labels & stickers, rubber bands, etc.)laminate samples, dust covers, foam pieces, deli containers, fishboard, cardboard tubes, plascore scraps, posters, shower caps, scrap materials, cards, etc.)

Please click on the following links:

Makerspace Journal Pages (below)

(Optional: a binder for each student to keep their Makerspace Journal pages in):

Videos:

Maker Journal Pages

Please click on the following links:

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page: Blocking the Sun’s Rays

Lesson 2 Maker Journal Page:  Which Materials Insulate an Ice Cube Best?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page1:  Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page2:  How Will Your Design Team Keep Ice Water Cold?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page3: What Does Your Final Design Look Like?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page4: Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun!

Extra Maker Journal page (for any lesson):   Maker Journal Extra Page

 

Design Thinking Overview

Our design thinking units have five phases based on the d.school’s model. Each phase can be repeated to allow students to re-work and iterate while developing deeper understanding of the core concepts. These are the five phases of the design thinking model:

EMPATHIZE: Work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom you are designing.  Do this through observation, interaction, and immersing yourself in their experiences.

DEFINE: Process and synthesize the findings from your empathy work in order to form a user point of view that you will address with your design.

IDEATE: Explore a wide variety of possible solutions through generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and explore a range of ideas.

PROTOTYPE: Transform your ideas into a physical form so that you can experience and interact with them and, in the process, learn and develop more empathy.

TEST: Try out high-resolution products and use observations and feedback to refine prototypes, learn more about the user, and refine your original point of view.

The Design Thinking Process | ReDesigning Theater. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://dschool.stanford.edu/redesigningtheater/the-design-thinking-process/

STEAM Integrated Standards

Please click on the following links:

NGSS K-PS3-2

NGSS K-2-ETS1

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.2

 

Lesson 1 Overview

                    Investigating ways to block the warming effects of the sun

This lesson focuses on students exploring the warming effects of the sun and reasons for blocking out the sun’s rays (NGSS K-2-ETS1-1).

Students will draw a picture of an everyday object that helps block out the sunlight and explain how the shape of their object helps it block out the sun’s warming effects (NGSS K-2-ETS1-2).

Essential Questions:

  • Why would you need to protect something from the sun?
  • How do we block the sun in everyday life?

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Professional Preparation:

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog: The following is a sample dialog between the teacher and the students in this lesson.

Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis

(Arrange students by teams for a whole group discussion.)

T: “How does the sun make you feel?”

S: (answers vary) Hot, warm, makes me squint.”

T: “How can the sun’s warmth help us?   How can it harm us?”

S: (answers vary) “Helps our flowers to grow, helps me feel good; harms me if I get a sunburn, makes me thirsty, etc.”

T: “How could we keep the warmth of the sun away?”

S: (answers vary) “Putting on sunscreen, by using drapes on windows, using an umbrella, cooler thermos, etc.”

T: (show the video … afterwards ask..)  What did you learn about the sun in the video?   What were some things that blocked the sunlight?

S: (answers vary) “Umbrella, sunscreen, sunglasses, etc.”

T: (Pass out the Maker Journal Page and drawing supplies.  Read together what is asked on the page, and then let the student teams discuss first their ideas, and then draw their own ideas on their Maker Journal pages)

Blocking the Sun’s Rays

 

S: (Students draw a picture on their Maker Journal Page to show an everyday object that helps block out the sunlight.  When they are finished, ask students to share with the class how their object blocks the sun)

T: Now let’s find more ideas about sun safety in this video!  (show the next video and then discuss together what they learned:  Sun Safety  )


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

Vocabulary:

Sun:  The Sun is a star and the biggest object in the Solar System, it burns brightly in the center as planets and other objects orbit around it.

Sunlight: the sun’s light or rays;  warmth and light are given by the sun’s rays

 

Lesson Materials

Please click on the following links:

Tech

Other

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page: Blocking the Sun’s Rays  (Optional: a binder for each student to keep their Makerspace Journal pages in)

External Resources

Maker Journal Pages

Please click on the following links:

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page: Blocking the Sun’s Rays

Extra Maker Journal page (for any lesson):   Maker Journal Extra Page

Teacher Notes

Always preview videos ahead of showing to the class.  Consider pre-selecting other images and/or other sites on the subject of the sun.  Discuss why some objects are made the way they are in order to block out the sun’s rays.

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

Students will be able to:

  • Explain how the sun’s warmth has benefits and can also be harmful.  
  • Explain how and why certain everyday objects help block the ray’s of the sun.

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Students review their own reasons for choosing certain objects to sheild the warmth of the sun, and evaluate whether they addressed the subject as fully as possible.

Peer Assessment

Student teams discuss and compare their findings and share different viewpoints. Students should compare their drawings and explain what they feel about the sun’s warmth.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individuals as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different ways to block the warming effect of the sun’s rays.

Lesson 2 Overview

                    How can we reduce the warming effects of the sun on an ice cube?

This lesson focuses on students testing different materials to be used for insulation around plastic cups and then determining how well each material prevents an ice cube inside the cup from melting in the sun:  NGSS K-PS3-2.  Teams will compare the strengths and weaknesses of their insulation materials  NGSS K-2-ETS1-3.   After several intervals of drawing ice cubes as they melt, student teams will compare the final drawing of a control ice cube in an uninsulated cup to the final drawing of their ice cube poured into an identical uninsulated cup  CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1  They will be able to explain the measureable attributes of both ice cubes and to describe the physical differences of the ice cubes CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.2 .

Essential Questions:

  • Which materials minimize the warming effects of the sun?
  • Which are the best materials to keep an ice cube from melting in the cup?

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Professional Preparation:

  • Provide enough space in the room to form small (2 student) teams.
  • Arrange to be near a location that gets direct sunlight.
  • Position all materials in a common area for student use. Suggestions:
    • Label an area the “Insulation Materials” location.
    • Set up another place for attachment materials (e.g., tape, rubber bands, string, etc.)
  • Plan how you will announce “time” at the beginning and at the end of each 5-minute interval.
  • Before the lesson, make copies of the Lesson 2 Maker Journal Pages (and Maker Journal “extra pages” if needed) for each student:
  • Preview the following videos prior to showing the students:

Lesson Format:

Each student team will test and analyze a different type of material and compare its strengths and weaknesses as a possible cup insulator.  Teams will receive identical plastic cups and cover the outside of them with their material.

Student teams will draw a “control” ice cube in a clear plastic cup. They will draw a picture of what the ice cube looks like at this initial stage on their Maker Journal Page.

Once students have chosen their insulating material and build a container or shade structure for the ice cube, the teacher will provide each team with one ice cube identical in size and weight to the control ice cube. A starting time will be announced and at that time each team will insert their ice cube into their “insulated” cup and set the cup outside in the direct sunlight (alongside the control ice cube in the plain cup).

After a 5 minute interval, time is called.in their Maker Journals, students quickly draw two pictures: one of the control or “plain” ice cube; and another of the cube that is shaded by their structure. After drawing pictures, student teams wait for a new 5 min time interval to be called. The process is repeated over and over until the final time is called.

At the end of the time period, student teams will compare the final drawings of the control ice cube in the insulated cup to the final drawing of their ice cube in the “plain” or control cup. They will explain the measureable attributes of both ice cubes and describe the physical differences of the ice cubes to the class. If possible, help students to weigh their cubes and compare to the weight of any remaining solid ice from the control cube.

 

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog: The following is a sample dialog between the teacher and the students in this lesson.
Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis

(Organize students into teams of 2 persons, and then assemble teams together for a whole group discussion.)

T: (hold up a sheet of foil and a sheet of plain paper for all to see). “Which of these do you think would make a better hat to keep your head cool in the summer sunlight? Why?”

S: (answers vary) “The foil reflects light better, the paper creates shade, etc.”

T: (Hold up an ice cube for all to see)…. What can you tell me about this ice cube?

S: “It’s cold, it’s a solid, it looks like a block, etc.”

T: Right now we say the ice cube is a “solid”…… What do you think happens if you put an ice cube in the sun?

S: “It melts, it becomes water, etc.”

T: Let’s watch what happens to an ice cube put on the cement in the sun on a very hot day (show video — time is purposefully sped up):    A Melting Ice Cube

(after showing the video ask…) What happened to the ice cube in the video?

S: “It melted, it got smaller, it turned into water, it disappeared, etc.”

T: “Yes, it melted after a few minutes because the heat of the sun was so hot. It changed the ice cube from a “solid” into a “liquid.” Today you are engineers, scientists, mathematicians, artists, and makers! Your team is going to try to keep an ice cube from melting into liquid while placed in direct sunlight. We will work in groups and each group will test one material so we can discover which materials will work best to keep an ice cube cold.”

“Each team can choose only one material from the “Insulation Materials” location” (hold up examples from that location- foil, paper, plastic sheets, cardboard, foam, etc, – and then let each team go up and select one material to use, and then return to the whole group.)

“Look at your material and discuss together about what makes your material so special for a cup cover …” (allow 3 min. for discussion). “Let’s share out what you think about why your material is so special! What makes it strong? Weak? How will it help keep an ice cube solid in the cup?”

S: “My lunchbox uses plastic foam to keep my lunch cool, so I think foam will work well.”

T: “Your team will also get one plastic cup.” (hold up a cup for all to see) “Find a way to keep your material on the cup — you have lots of ways on this table.” (Show connectors like tape, rubber bands, etc. Pass out cups and allow ~10 min. for each team to attach their “insulation” to their cup, and then return to the whole group setting).

“Now we will call your cups the “covered” cups! (Show a student cup covered by insulating material.) “And we will call this ice cube the plain cup, because it has nothing covering it to keep the ice cube cold. ” (Hold up an ice cube in a plain plastic cup)

(Pass out to each student the Lesson 2 Maker Journal Page:   Which Materials Insulate an Ice Cube Best? )

T: “I’m going to announce a start time soon (e.g., by ringing a bell…). I will give you another ice cube the same size as our control ice cube. When you hear the bell (or when time starts), put your ice cube into your covered cup, walk your covered cup over to the sunny spot and lay it nearby my control ice cube in the plain cup. While you wait for the next bell, draw a picture of what your ice cube looks like here in your Maker Journal Page.” (point to the correct column in the Maker Journal page and show where to draw. Pass out ice cubes to teams, take questions… review if needed, and when ready announce the start time/ring the bell, etc.)

“READY, SET, GO!”

(Teams put ice cubes into their insulated cups, lay them in the sunny area next to the control ice cube in its plain cup, and draw a picture of the starting ice cube in their Maker Journal page.)

(Suggestion:  Create a large chart and draw the “plain” ice cube with students at each interval).

“Look at the final drawing of your ice cube.  What is different about the final drawing of your ice cube and the final drawing of the “plain” ice cube?”

S: “The covered ice cube is larger.”

T: “Why is the covered ice cube bigger?”

S: “Because it was protected from the sun’s warming energy.”

 

T: “Let’s walk around and look at each group’s cover and their ice cubes. Which covers seem to work best?”

S: “Foil, foam, etc.”

T:  (Show the video:   An Ice Cube Insulator Project

After the video ask the students to compare and contrast the project in the video with their own project findings).

 


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

Vocabulary (for Kinders):

 

Control: a object, group or individual used as a standard of comparison for checking the results of a survey or experiment.

Cube: A box-shaped solid object that has six identical square faces.

Insulation: the act of protecting something by surrounding it with material that reduces or prevents the transmission of sound or heat or electricity. A material that reduces or prevents the transmission of heat or sound or electricity.

Liquid: A substance that flows freely but is of constant volume, having a consistency like that of water or oil.

Melt:  To make or become liquefied by heat.

Solid:  Firm and stable in shape; not liquid or fluid.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box       -or-

One of the same water bottle or plastic cup per team, same size ice cubes in ice trays, scissors, weight scale, various materials (e.g., foil, plastic wrap, bubble wrap, paper, felt, fabrics, etc.)

Connecting Materials

e.g., paperclips, binder clips, tape, glue, thread, yarn, adhesive foam pads, labels & stickers, rubber bands, etc.

RAFT Makerspace Journal Pages  (Optional: a binder for each student to keep their Makerspace Journal pages in)

Please click on the following links:

Videos:

External Resources

Please click on the following video links:

Maker Journal Pages

Lesson 2 Maker Journal Page:  Which Materials Insulate an Ice Cube Best?

Teacher Notes

Always preview videos ahead of showing to the class.  Explain the concept of “weight” to the class, (e.g., compare weights of different items they can hold in their hands).  Optional: assign one person to weigh the ice cubes in cups or you weigh them and announce/record(on a large chart in plain view of all students) each weight at five-minute intervals up until a time limit of 20 minutes (or any other chosen time limit; if need be, hand out to each student a Maker Journal Extra Page to record interval information)

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

 

Learning Targets

Students will be able to:

  • Determine how well a material covering a cup prevents an ice cube inside the cup from melting in the sun
  • Compare the strengths and weaknesses of their insulation materials
  • Compare the final weight of a control ice cube to the final weight of their ice cube
  • Explain the measureable attributes of both the control and their own ice cube and describe the physical differences of the ice cubes

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Students review their own reasons for choosing certain objects to sheild the warmth of the sun, and evaluate whether they addressed the subject as fully as possible.

Peer Assessment

Student teams discuss and compare their findings and share different viewpoints. Students should compare their drawings and explain what they feel about the sun’s warmth on an ice cube, and how measuring the weight of the ice cube was useful in this determination.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individuals as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different ways to block the warming effect of the sun’s rays.

Design Challenge Lesson Overview

                                            Design a cup to keep ice water cold!

In this culminating lesson, student teams iterate ideating a design, prototyping it, testing it, and redesigning it until all requirements are met to create an insulator for a container using materials that minimize the temperature of ice water when the container is placed in direct sunlight (NGSS-K-PS3-2). The final design compares the temperature of the water inside the insulated container at the beginning of the experiment to the temperature of the water after 30 minutes to analyze any effects on the water’s temperature. Student teams will share their results, and compare and contrast differences between each team’s approach in solving the problem. [(NGSS-K-2-ETS1-2), (NGSS-K-2-ETS1-3) and (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1, 2)]

Essential Questions:

  • How can we keep ice water cold?
  • How can you design an object to keep ice water cool for 30 minutes?
  • How do you know your design works to insulate cold water?
  • What is the difference between weighing something and taking its temperature?

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Professional Preparation:

  • Provide enough space in the room to form small (2 to 3 student) teams.
  • Arrange to be near a location that gets direct sunlight.
  • Prepare how to introduce reading a simple thermometer to the class (Suggestion:  display a large picture of a thermometer for all to see).
  • Prepare ahead one “control cup” per student team by making a horizontal mark on the cup 3 inches up from the bottom. Set aside.
  • Set aside one additional unmarked identical plastic cup for each student team.
  • Similar to Lesson 2, position all materials in a common area for student use. Suggestions (feel free to change any way that best suits your class):
    • Label an area the “Insulation Materials” location.
    • Label another area the “Temperature Station” for taking the temperature of the ice water (decide whether you or a designated student from each team will do the actual temperature reading during each timed interval).
    • Set up another place for attachment materials (e.g., tape, rubber bands, string, etc.)
  • Plan how you will announce “time” at the beginning and at the end of the 30-minute time.
  • Before the lesson, make copies of the Lesson 3 Maker Journal Pages (and Maker Journal “extra pages” if needed) for each student:

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page1:  Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page2: How will your team keep ice water cold?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page3: What Does Your Final Design Look Like?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page4: Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun

Extra Maker Journal page (for any lesson):   Maker Journal Extra Page

  • Download the following videos and preview prior to showing the students:

Lesson Format:

  • Ask the first two essential questions (show examples of containers: e.g., a real water bottle and/or a thermos and ask students how they think it keeps liquids cool inside).
  • Hand each team one “control cup”, and one unmarked plastic cup.
  • Announce the marked plastic cup is the “control cup”.
  • In the Design Challenge, student teams will insulate the unmarked container with various recycled materials use to hold ice water.
  • The insulated container will be referred to as the “my team cup”.
  • Student teams iterate ideating a design for their “my team” container, prototyping it, testing it, and redesigning it until a final design is chosen to insulate the container.
  • Students record all their ideas and final designs in their Maker Journals.
  • Student teams move to a sunny location with their “control cup” and “my team cup” containers.
  • Provide one 16.9 fl.oz. bottle of ice water to each student team.
  • Students pour some of the ice water into the “control” container up to the marked line.
  • They empty the ice water that they just poured into the “control” container and then pour it into their insulated “my team cup”.
  • Student teams refill their “control cup” container up to the water line mark with the remaining bottled water.
  • All “control cup” and “my team cup” containers now hold ice water.
  • Announce a start time.
  • One team member on each team places the thermometer inside the “control” cup and reads the temperature out loud to the other team member.
  • Both team members record the starting water temperature (Temperature 1) for both the “control cup” and the “my team cup” in their Maker Journals ( Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun? ) and then place their “control cup” and “my team cup” containers in direct sunlight for 30 minutes.
  • During this time, student teams draw in their Maker Journal their ideate pictures illustrating their ideas for insulation on their “my team cup” ( How Will Your Team Keep Ice Water Cold?) and what their final design looks like (What Does Your Final Design Look Like?)
  • Student share and discuss the reasons why they chose to make those designs and how/why temperature is an indicator of how cold or hot something is.  Teams then draw ideas in their Maker Journal Page ( Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun) of how they would keep a snowman from melting in the sun……
  • Call time at 30 minutes.
  • Teams stop and compare the temperature of the water from the “control cup” container to that of the water in the “my team cup” container.
  • Everyone records the temperatures in their Maker Journals.
  • Student teams answer the third essential question.
  • Student teams share their findings with each other and/or another audience.

 

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog: The following is a sample dialog between the teacher and the students in this lesson.

Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis.

(Organize students into teams of 2 persons, and then assemble teams together for a whole group discussion.)

(Show the video: The Water Song )

T: Why do we need water?

S: (answers vary…. )

T: How can we keep ice water cold?

(Hold up an insulated water bottle/ thermos, etc., for students to see).

S: (answers vary…. )

T: Today you will be conducting an experiment to see if you can keep ice water cold for a long time! How can we know how cold water is?

S: (answers vary…. by feeling it, by drinking it, etc.)

T: We can use a thermometer to measure how cold and how hot things are!

(show the class a thermometer and go over how to read temperature with it…… also show the videos:  The Thermometer Song and  Reading a Thermometer )

T: The marked container is the “control” cup (hold up a “control cup” and point to the marked line). The other cup that doesn’t have a mark is called “my team” cup.  How can you design an object to keep ice water cold for 30 minutes?

S: (answers vary….)

T: Set aside your “control cup” for now. Take the “my team cup” and use any materials you like to “insulate” the cup so that when you add ice water to it the ice water will stay cold in the sun! (Allow ~ 15 min for teams to insulate their cups using materials provided. When time is called, bring the class back together for a group discussion).

(Pass out to each student: Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page1:  Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun?)

T: (Hold up a sample “control” cup for all to see. Pour the contents of the water bottle into the cup. Demonstrate how to read the temperature of the ice water in the cup) “Let’s write the starting temperature of the ice water on your Maker Journal page.” (show students where to write this)

(Hand each team a bottle of ice water. On a tabletop, ask student teams to pour the ice water from the bottle up to the marked line on the control cup only. After everyone has done this, ask student teams to empty the contents of that cup into their insulated unmarked “my team cup” and set it aside. Have students refill the “control cup” up to the marked line with the remaining water from the water bottle)

T: Now your team has 2 cups of ice water— the one with the marked line is the “control cup” and the other is the “my team cup”. What can you tell me about both cups?

S: “They both have the same amount of ice water, they both have the same temperature, etc.”

T: Both of your cups now have the same amount of ice water. The temperature of the ice water in both cups starts out the same!   Let’s bring our cups outside to place in direct sunlight (teams walk out with ice water cups and lay them in a designated location outside in direct sunlight).

T: After 30 minutes I will announce time.

(Pass out Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page2:  How will your team keep ice Water Cold? ; Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page3: What Does Your Final Design Look Like? ; and Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page4: Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun)

T: While we’re waiting, draw a picture on your Maker Journal Pages of all your beginning ideas, what you decided on for your final insulated cup, and a picture of how you would keep a snow man from melting in the sun…… When I call TIME, your team will check the temperature of the “control” cup and of your “my team” cups.

“You will record the final temperature on your Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page1:  Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun? ” (show students where they will write  this information).

(Call time. Student teams check and record the final temperatures of their “control” and “my team” cups. Bring all teams back for a group discussion).

(Recall with the class how in previous lessons (Empathy & Define) they have been thinking about insulating to keep things from melting.)

T: “How can you know how cold the water is?”

S: “By using a thermometer, etc.”

T: (Have student teams share their Maker Journal results and pictures.) “Did your design work to insulate cold water? Why or why not? What would you have done differently?”

S: (answers vary….)

 

 


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

Vocabulary:

Temperature: Temperature is a degree of hotness or coldness the can be measured using a thermometer.  Temperature is the measure of how cold or hot somewhere is.  Temperature is measured using a thermometer, with units in degrees on Fahrenheit (oF) or Celsius (oC).

Thermometer: The main type of thermometer used is the liquid-in-glass thermometer. A liquid (usually alcohol) expands depending on temperature. It then moves up a small tube alongside a scale, from which temperature readings can be made.

 

 

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box       -or-

One 16.9 fluid oz. bottled ice water per student team.

Two of the same plastic cup per team, ice water, scissors, timers, thermometers, rulers or measuring tapes, markers,  various materials (e.g., foil, plastic wrap, bubble wrap, paper, felt, fabrics, etc.)

Connecting Materials

e.g., paperclips, binder clips, tape, glue, thread, yarn, adhesive foam pads, wooden stir sticks, straws, spoons, pipettes, labels & stickers, rubber bands, etc.)laminate samples, dust covers, foam pieces, deli containers, fishboard, cardboard tubes, plascore scraps, posters, shower caps, scrap materials, cards, etc.)

Please click on the following links:

Makerspace Journal Pages  (Optional: a binder for each student to keep their Makerspace Journal pages in)

 

 

 

External Resources

Maker Journal Pages

LESSON 3 MAKER JOURNAL PAGES

Please click on the following links:

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page1:  Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page2:  How Will Your Team Keep Ice Water Cold?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page3: What Does Your Final Design Look Like?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page4: Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun!

Extra Maker Journal page (for any lesson):   Maker Journal Extra Page

Teacher Notes

Always preview videos ahead of showing to the class. If wished, discuss differences between Farenheit and Celcius readings.

Instead of one 60 minute lesson, you may choose to do this in two lessons:  the first lesson up until the final temperatures are recorded and the second lesson continuing from there.

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

 

 

Learning Targets

Students will be able to:

  • Create an insulator for a container using materials that minimize the temperature of ice water when the container is placed in direct sunlight (NGSS-K-PS3-2).
  • Compare and analyze the temperature of ice water inside an insulated container at the beginning of the experiment to the temperature of the ice water after 30 minutes.
  • Share results and compare/contrast differences between each team’s approach in solving the problem [(NGSS-K-2-ETS1-2), (NGSS-K-2-ETS1-3) and (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1, 2)]

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Students review their own reasons for choosing certain objects to sheild the warmth of the sun, and evaluate whether they addressed the subject as fully as possible.

Peer Assessment

Student teams discuss and compare their findings and share different viewpoints. Students compare their drawings and explain what they feel about the effect of the sun’s warmth on ice water, and how measuring the temperature of the ice cube was useful in this determination.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individuals as they work. Assess student understanding of how different types of measurements are useful (e.g., weight, temperature).

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different ways to block the warming effect of the sun’s rays.