All Grades

How can you use recycled supplies to create simple, easy to store compartment containers to hold Makerspace project materials?

Students learn each phase of the Design Thinking ProcessEmpathize, Define, Ideate, Prototype, and Test (modeled after the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford) — as they create container totes that can easily hold and transport a variety of materials from a Makerspace location to other locations for maker projects.

Educational outcomes

  • Lesson 1 —  Empathy: Students determine why it might be useful to make a items out of recycled materials and record why making products from recycled materials can help solve problems. Students understand that Makerspaces are areas that offer hands-on, creative ways to encourage students to design, experiment, build and invent as they engage deeply in problem solving.
  • Lesson 2 —  Define: Students determine what attributes are necessary for a container made from recycled materials.
  • Lesson 3 —  Ideate: Students brainstorm ideas for containers that suit the needs of the problem; they decide on a model to create; they create a list of requirements; and then sketch ideas for a model.
  • Lesson 4 Design Challenge —  Prototype & Test: Students iterate building, testing, redesigning, and retesting the model until all requirements are met. Student then introduce and report on a final prototype model of a container.

Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Unit Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box

-or-

Multiples of common recycled materials, such as:

Fasteners — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Clips (binder, paper, etc.)
  • Rubber bands
  • String, ribbons, etc.
  • Adhesives (tape, glue dots, velcro strips, stickers, etc.)

Handles — (various materials can be assembled to create handles):

  • Dowels
  • Sticks: coffee stirrers, tongue depressors, popsicle, etc.
  • Straws (plastic or paper)
  • Knitting needles
  • Ribbons, yarns, strings, etc.
  • Spoons, Forks (plastic or other)
  • Zip ties

Holders — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Cups (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Lids (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Box containers (clear plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Bags (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Egg cartons
  • Fabric squares
  • Nets

(Please click on the following highlighted links):

Technology (Videos)  

Handout

Maker Journal Pages

Assessment Forms

(one per student)

Review all student Makerspace Journal pages for formative assessment.

Design Thinking Overview

Our design thinking units have five phases based on the d.school’s model. Each phase can be repeated to allow students to re-work and iterate while developing deeper understanding of the core concepts. These are the five phases of the design thinking model:

EMPATHIZE: Work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom you are designing.  Do this through observation, interaction, and immersing yourself in their experiences.

DEFINE: Process and synthesize the findings from your empathy work in order to form a user point of view that you will address with your design.

IDEATE: Explore a wide variety of possible solutions through generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and explore a range of ideas.

PROTOTYPE: Transform your ideas into a physical form so that you can experience and interact with them and, in the process, learn and develop more empathy.

TEST: Try out high-resolution products and use observations and feedback to refine prototypes, learn more about the user, and refine your original point of view.

The Design Thinking Process | ReDesigning Theater. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://dschool.stanford.edu/redesigningtheater/the-design-thinking-process/

Lesson 1 Overview

Why is it important to recycle and to repurpose materials?

In helping students to understand a real-life problem, this lesson focuses on the concept of Empathy: when you can feel what another person is feeling. Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process; by deeply understanding people we are better able to design for them.  By understanding a need to repurpose items from those that might otherwise end up in landfill, students learn an important lesson about caring for the earth, protecting its habitats, and providing for a future that uses creative ideas to solve problems.  Students determine why it might be useful to make items out of  recycled materials and record why making products from recycled materials can help solve problems.

Essential Questions:

  • What does the word “empathy” mean to you?
  • What does it mean to recycle? To repurpose?
  • Why is it important to think about recycling and repurposing?
  • How can finding new uses for recycled objects help solve problems?
  • What did you learn about recycling in this video?
  • How can you get other people to help recycle?
  • Which ideas in the video did you think were good? Why? Did they solve any problems?
  • Did this video help you think differently about recycling? In what way?

LESSON PROCEDURE

Professional Preparation :

  • Arrange all recycled materials in the Makerspace for students to look at.
  • Include various recycled materials that could be used as containers and connectors.
  • Provide enough space in the room to form student teams of 3 to 4 people. Plan to choose or to allow students to choose teams. Room arrangement should allow for observation and safety in getting around.
  • Prepare ways to engage students in sharing of ideas, reasoning, and approaches, using a variety of representations.
  • Think of ways to encourage students to present and explain ideas and to  reason with one another in pair, small group, and whole class discourse.
  • Think of ways to motivate students to listen carefully to and to critique the reasoning of peers, using examples to support or counterexamples to refute arguments.
  • Prepare clarifying questions; encourage students try out others’ strategies and approaches.
  • Help students to identify how different approaches to solving a task are the same and how they are different.
  • If possible, arrange a time to take students on a visit to a recycling center to learn about how materials are recycled.
  • Make copies of the following for each student:
  • Prepare binders or folders for students to contain Student Maker Journal pages.
  • Download the following video and preview prior to showing the students:

Lesson Format (Students walk around Makerspace, and then sit with teams):

Whole group discussion: 

  • Start with an open discussion about what everyone notices about the Makerspace.
  • Explain the Makerspace is a working place that encourages the students to design, experiment, build, and invent as they problem solve.
  • Explain that this is their Makerspace and it is supplied with recycled materials.
  • Ask questions about recycling and repurposing (see “Essential Questions” above)
  • Pass out Maker Journals and the Maker Journal page:
  • Ask students to record their thoughts on the Maker Journal Page and to share results with the whole group.
  • Open discussion on how recycling and repurposing helps to solve problems.
  • Discuss Empathy; how caring helps us to understand, connect, and to make decisions.
  • Watch the video:
  • Ask questions about the video (See “Essential Questions” above).
  • Ask students to record what they learned about making new things out of recycled materials (Remind any idea is fine no matter how silly!) and about empathy in their Maker Journal:  Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page: Recyling Ideas!      Share out responses.

Student Directions (Click + to open)

A Sample Teacher/Student(s) Dialog:  The following is a sample dialog between the teacher & the students for this lesson.

(Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis).

T: (Invite students to look around the Makerspace for 5 minutes, and then ask them to prepare for a whole group discussion).  

T:  What did you notice about the Makerspace?

S: (answers vary…) 

T: Your Makerspace is a place to work on projects and ideas — it’s where you design, experiment, build, test, and invent as you solve problems!  The materials we have to work with are supplied with recycled products!  What does it mean to “recycle”?  Can you give me examples of recycling?

S: (Answers vary….) 

T: What does it mean to repurpose?

S: It means to reuse something in a way that it was not intended for originally. 

T: Why is it important to think about recycling and repurposing?  Report what you think about this question on the Maker Journal Sheet I am now passing out. (Pass out Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page:  My Recycle Sheet! —  explain how to number additional pages; “Write “1” on the top of the right side of the first page of your Maker Journal and if you need additional pages just ask me” — for extra pages use Extra Journal Page  and remind students to number each additional page on the top right corner of the page)

(after about 10 minutes…)

T: Who would like to share with us what they entered into their journal?

S: (Students share out ….) 

T: How does recycling and repurposing help to solve problems?

S: (Answers vary….) 

T: We are going to be solving problems in our Makerspace.  How do you think recycled materials will help us with solving problems?  

S: I think recycling materials helps solve the problem of littering the earth because instead of throwing something away we keep it for another purpose. 

T: What do you think about making something new out of something old? How does recycling help?

S: I think it keeps things that could still be useful from going into our landfills and possibly harming life on earth.

T: To feel, or understand, what another person is feeling is called “empathy”.  How many of you “empathize” with what (student name) said about being able to solve problems by recycling?  (ask them to explain, to reason why, and to listen carefully to one another …)

S: (answers vary … )

T: Empathy helps us to understand, to connect to one another, and to make decisions.  Now I have a short video about some creative ideas for making new things out of recycled materials!  Let’s watch! (Show the video: 2o Awesome Creative Recycling Ideas )

T: What did you learn about recycling in this video?

S: (answers vary … )

T: Which ideas in the video did you think were good? Why? Did they solve any problems?

S: (answers vary … , motivate students to critique the reasoning of peers, using examples to support or counterexamples to refute arguments)

T: Did this video help you think differently about recycling? In what way?

S: (answers vary … )

T:  (Pass out the next Maker Journal Page: Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page: Recyling Ideas! ).  I want you to list 3 new ways to use the recycled materials written on this page.  You can write any idea no matter if its silly or realistic!  On the bottom of the journal page please write what empathy means to you.

(allow 10 minutes to fill out journal pages, then call time)

T: Please turn to your teammates and share what you wrote on your page. (After a few minutes ask students to share out what they wrote with the entire class). 

 


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

Vocabulary

Empathy:  

  • The feeling that you understand and share another person’s experiences and emotions.
  • The ability to understand a real-world situation
  • Understanding a real-world problem
  • Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process; by deeply understanding people we are better able to design for them.

Repurposing  (click on the underlined word for the definition):

  • Repurposing is the process by which an object with one use value is transformed or redeployed as an object with an alternative use value.

Recycling  (click on the underlined words for their definitions):

  • Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into reusable objects to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, energy usage, air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by decreasing the need for “conventional” waste disposal and lowering greenhouse gas emissions compared to plastic production.

recycle-sign

The three chasing arrows of the international recycling logo. It is sometimes accompanied by the text “reduce, reuse and recycle”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Lesson Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box

-or-

Multiples of common recycled materials, such as:

Fasteners — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Clips (binder, paper, etc.)
  • Rubber bands
  • String, ribbons, etc.
  • Adhesives (tape, glue dots, velcro strips, stickers, etc.)

Handles — (various materials can be assembled to create handles):

  • Dowels
  • Sticks: coffee stirrers, tongue depressors, popsicle, etc.
  • Straws (plastic or paper)
  • Knitting needles
  • Ribbons, yarns, strings, etc.
  • Spoons, Forks (plastic or other)
  • Zip ties

Holders — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Cups (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Lids (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Box containers (clear plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Bags (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Egg cartons
  • Fabric squares
  • Nets

External Resources

Please click on the following video link:

Teacher Notes

Preview all online resources, including videos, for appropriate student content use.

Explore other aspects of recycling (click on the underlined words for more information):

  • The process of converting waste materials into reusable objects to prevent waste of potentially useful materials
  • Reducing the consumption of fresh raw materials
  • energy usage, air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by decreasing the need for “conventional” waste disposal and lowering greenhouse gas emissions compared to plastic production.
  • Composting, etc.

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – A lot of meaningful conversations — between teacher and students and also among students.  Lots of questions asked by and of students. Teacher often manages the conversation, but the students and their thoughts, ideas, and questions determine the scope and direction of the conversation.

6 – Instead of teacher or textbook giving answers or info, students discover ideas through inquiry and exploration.  They figure out solutions and answers on their own.

7 – Tests and quizzes are sometimes needed, but focus assessment on student-created “learning artifacts” — students complete these products to demonstrate in-depth knowledge and understanding key topics.

8 – The focus is on the ultimate goal of student thinking… Every activity, lesson, and project is geared toward deepening and strengthening students’ critical thinking skills.  Students analyze, question, explore, and evaluate on a regular basis.

9 – Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

10 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and usable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

Students will be able to: 

  • Understand that useful items can be made from recycled materials.
  •  Show that making products from repurposed recycled materials can help solve problems.
  •  Understand and can explain the Empathy Phase of the Design Thinking Process.

Assessment

Please click on the following links: 

 (one per student)

Review all student Makerspace Journal pages for formative assessment.

Lesson 2 Overview

How can you solve the problem of transporting materials to another place ?

In this Define Phase lesson, students will process what they learned in the Empathy phase to help them to define types of containers/totes they can make out of recycled objects to hold and to transport materials to a working space.  In order to create container solutions, students need time to investigate various approaches and to hear differing viewpoints from one another. In this lesson phase, students will investigate attributes of containers that will help define this project.

Essential Questions:

  • What is the Define phase of the design thinking process?
  • How could you move some materials you need from the Makerspace to another location?
  • What might be the benefits for moving to another location?
  • How might a tote help you to hold the things you need?
  • What attributes should you consider for a tote?
  • How will you store the tote after it is used? (investigate places you might store them; on a wall, on a cart, take apart, etc., and ease of storage)
  • What else should you consider?

LESSON PROCEDURE

Professional Preparation :

Lesson Format (Student teams in the Makerspace area):

  • Quick review of the Empathy phase (Lesson 1).
  • Discuss the Define Phase: it’s when you process and synthesize all you learned from the Empathy phase to define a user need that your design will address.
  • Openly discuss the display of recycled materials available in the Makerspace.
  • Investigate reasons to move materials to other locations.
  • Define and record tote attributes in Maker Journals.
  • Assemble totes made only out of plastic cups, plastic spoons, and binder clips and investigate how they might solve the problem.
  • Define tote storage solutions for the totes after their use.

Student Directions (Click + to open)

A Sample Teacher/Student(s) Dialog:  The following is a sample dialog between the teacher & the students for this lesson.

(Arrange ahead of time an area in the Makerspace containing plastic cups, plastic spoons, and binder clips — make sure to have at least 3 plastic cups, 3 binder clips, and 1 plastic spoon per student team)

(Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis).

Show video to the class: Making New Things Out of Old Plastic

T:  (open class discussion): What did this video show you about recycling and the Empathy phase of Design thinking?

S:   (answers vary; e.g., recycling and repurposing helps me to solve a problem … )

T:  Look at all the recycled materials given to you and the Makerspace area you have to work in! This is your awesome area for creating !  What should you think about when working in this space?

S:   (answers vary; e.g., how to store stuff, clean up, organize materials, make things easy to get to, etc.)

T: What might be the benefits for moving from the storage space to another location?

S: Sometimes you might need to transport many different materials to another location all at once so you can work on them!

T:  Any ideas about how could you do this?

S:   (answers vary; e.g., make carriers to transport materials easily…., moveable carts, etc.)

T: How could a tote (“container”) help you to hold the things you need? 

S:   (answers vary; e.g., easy to move about, could contain multiple sections with different materials to use at once, etc.)

T: The Define phase of the design thinking process takes all you learned from the Empathy phase to define a user need that your design will address. Today your team will address the need to make a tote out of recycled plastic cups, binder clips, and plastic spoons to help Makerspace users carry materials from one place to another. You have the following criteria: you can only use these materials, and your tote must be able to hold at least 3 different types of supplies in separate sections. (ask students to sit with teams, then pass out copies of RAFT 3 Cup Maker Tote and/or provide these materials and ask student teams to create totes with them.  Allow 20 minutes for students to experiment with ways to connect the cups) 

(after time is called, discuss the following with all teams)

T: What attributes should you consider for a tote?  

S:   (answers vary; e.g., strong, easy to transport, hold many things at once, etc.)

T: How did you create simple but useful containers with multiple compartments out of commonplace salvaged plastic cups, spoons, and binder clips that could hold project materials in a Makerspace?

(Pass out to each student:  Lesson 2 Maker Journal Page: Tote All Possibilities! )

T: We have been thinking about solving the problem of carrying many  supplies from one place to another in sturdy containers made from recycled supplies!  By teams, walk over to the Makerspace and check out all the recycled materials you have at hand.  Record in your Maker Journal other items that might be useful for containers, handles, and connectors!

(allow student teams time to investigate and record attributes in their journals. After time, discuss the following points together –> )

  • What else could you use for containers? (think of things that hold other things)
  • What could you use for handles? (investigate ways to carry containers)
  • What else could you use for fasteners? (investigate ways to connect holders, containers, etc.)
  • How strong does a tote need to be? (investigate durability)
  • How easy will it be to organize and access different types of items in the tote compartments? (investigate compartments & easy access to materials they contain)
  • Will your tote hold all the items you need? (investigate holding multiple sets of objects at once)

T: How will you store the tote after it is used? (investigate places you might store them; on a wall, on a cart, take apart, etc., and ease of storage). Anything else you should consider?

S:   (answers vary)

T: What can you tell me about the Define Phase of the design thinking process?

S:   (answers vary — quick review of the Define phase)


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

The Define phase of the Design Thinking process: 

  • After processing and synthesizing the findings from the Empathy phase, you form a user need that will be addressed with your design.


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Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Lesson Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box

-or-

Multiples of common recycled materials, such as:

Fasteners — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Clips (binder, paper, etc.)
  • Rubber bands
  • String, ribbons, etc.
  • Adhesives (tape, glue dots, velcro strips, stickers, etc.)

Handles — (various materials can be assembled to create handles):

  • Dowels
  • Sticks: coffee stirrers, tongue depressors, popsicle, etc.
  • Straws (plastic or paper)
  • Knitting needles
  • Ribbons, yarns, strings, etc.
  • Spoons, Forks (plastic or other)
  • Zip ties

Holders — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Cups (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Lids (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Box containers (clear plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Bags (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Egg cartons
  • Fabric squares
  • Nets

External Resources

Please click on the following video link:   

Please click on the following handout link:

Maker Journal Pages

Please click on the following links:

Teacher Notes

Preview all online resources, including videos, for appropriate student content use.

Have students investigate containers made from recycled materials (e.g., on web).

Consider where your students can work on designing:

  • Do they  work in the same room where the materials are stored or do they need to move to another location?
  • Do you have movable tables or carts to transport materials to another location?
  • Prepare to have at least 3 plastic cups, 3 binder clips, and 1 plastic spoon per student team

Prepare ways to engage students:

  • Sharing of ideas, reasoning, and approaches, using a variety of representations.
  • Encourage presenting and explaining ideas and reasoning with one another in pair, small group, and whole class discourse.
  • Think of ways to motivate students to listen carefully to and to critique the reasoning of peers, using examples to support or counterexamples to refute arguments.
  • Prepare clarifying questions; encourage students try out others’ strategies and approaches.
  • Help students to identify how different approaches to solving a task are the same and how they are different.

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – A lot of meaningful conversations — between teacher and students and also among students.  Lots of questions asked by and of students. Teacher often manages the conversation, but the students and their thoughts, ideas, and questions determine the scope and direction of the conversation.

6 – Instead of teacher or textbook giving answers or info, students discover ideas through inquiry and exploration.  They figure out solutions and answers on their own.

7 – Tests and quizzes are sometimes needed, but focus assessment on student-created “learning artifacts” — students complete these products to demonstrate in-depth knowledge and understanding key topics.

8 – The focus is on the ultimate goal of student thinking… Every activity, lesson, and project is geared toward deepening and strengthening students’ critical thinking skills.  Students analyze, question, explore, and evaluate on a regular basis.

9 – Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

10 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and usable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

 

Learning Targets

Students will be able to:

  • Identify and explain the Define Phase of the Design Thinking Process.
  • Identify and explain attributes of recycled materials.
  • Explain how making totes from repurposed recycled materials could solve a problem.

Assessment

Please click on the following links: 

 (one per student)

Review all student Makerspace Journal pages for formative assessment.

Lesson 3 Overview

Brainstorm ideas for a suitable Maker Tote!

In Lesson 3, student teams brainstorm ideas for containers that suit the needs of the problem; they decide on a model to create; they create a list of requirements; and then sketch ideas for a tote model.

Essential Questions:  

  • What does it mean to Ideate in the Design Thinking process?
  • What are some essential things to keep in mind when brainstorming as a team?
  • Why is it important to include all types of possible solutions?
  • How does the Ideate phase prepare you for the Design Challenge?

LESSON PROCEDURE

Professional Preparation:

Lesson Format:   (Student teams in the Makerspace area)

  • Quick review of the Define phase (Lesson 2)
  • Show the video:  The Design Thinking Process
  • Discuss the ideate phase of the Design Thinking process.
  • Discuss ways to brainstorm ideas and then show video– 5 Rules for Brainstorming
    • Postpone other people’s ideas
    • Encourage wild and exaggerated ideas
    • Quantity counts at this stage, not quality
    • Build on the ideas put forward by others
    • Every person and every idea has equal worth
  • Ask “essential questions” listed above.
  • Decide on minimum tote requirements with students.
  • Pass to each student: Lesson 3: Maker Journal Page: Our Tote Requirements!
  • Student teams record the requirements of the problem in their maker journals.
  • Pass to each student: Lesson 3: Maker Journal Page: Our Tote Ideas!
  • Student teams ideate tote designs and record results in their maker journals.
  • Student teams share what they learned during the ideate phase of the Design thinking process.

 

Student Directions (Click + to open)

A Sample Teacher/Student(s) Dialog:  The following is a sample dialog between the teacher & the students for this lesson.

(Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis).

T: What did we do in the Define phase of Lesson 2?

S: We defined the problem — we needed to carry lots of materials at once from the Makerspace to other locations. So we decided we could create  Maker Totes to help us do this.

T:  Remember the Empathy phase and the Define phase are parts of the Design Thinking process.  Let’s look into this process in the next video (show the video:  The Design Thinking Process )

T:  What does it mean to Ideate in the Design Thinking process?

S:  To brainstorm ideas that suit the needs of the problem!

T:  We need to understand how to brainstorm before we begin.  There are many ways, but let’s think about 5 ways today that work with teams — these are like your team rules for thinking up new ideas (list each of the following and then ask the students what they think each one means):

5 ways to brainstorm:

  1. Postpone other people’s ideas
  2. Encourage wild and exaggerated ideas
  3. Quantity counts at this stage, not quality
  4. Build on the ideas put forward by others
  5. Every person and every idea has equal worth

Let’s take a look at this video on brainstorming (show 5 Rules for Brainstorming ).

T:  What are some essential things to keep in mind when brainstorming as a team? Why is it important to include all types of possible solutions?

S:  (answers vary)

T:  I want teams to decide on their own tote requirements.  First, however, I think we must all agree on certain minimum requirements together (solicit ideas for minimum requirements; e.g., must have at least X components, each must contain at least Y different items, must hold every item at once without falling apart, etc.)

S:  (answers vary — eventually everyone agrees to the same minimum requirements)

T: (suggestion: post minimum requirements for easy reference)

T:  (Pass to each student: Lesson 3: Maker Journal Page: Our Tote Requirements!)

T: Remember our minimum requirements for a tote design?  Now student teams will look at the items in the Makerspace that they want to carry to other locations in a tote. Decide on which and how many of those items you will need, and then record the requirements for your tote design in your Maker Journals.

(after approximately 10 minutes gather students together)

T: Now that your team has decided the requirements in a tote, you will ideate/brainstorm together all possible ways you could create totes to satisfy your problem.  (Pass to each student: Lesson 3: Maker Journal Page: Our Tote Ideas!)

(Allow at least 10 minutes for student teams to ideate tote designs and record results in their maker journals)

T: Now let’s share out why you think the Ideate phase helps us decide how to create a tote!

S:  (answers vary)

 


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

The Ideate phase of the Design Thinking process: 

  • After forming a user need from the Define phase, in the Ideate phase you investigate a wide variety of possible solutions by generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and to explore a range of design ideas.

5 Rules for Brainstorming Ideas:

  • Postpone other people’s ideas
  • Encourage wild and exaggerated ideas
  • Quantity counts at this stage, not quality
  • Build on the ideas put forward by others
  • Every person and every idea has equal worth


[/toggle] [/toggles]

 

Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Lesson Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box

-or-

Multiples of common recycled materials, such as:

Fasteners — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Clips (binder, paper, etc.)
  • Rubber bands
  • String, ribbons, etc.
  • Adhesives (tape, glue dots, velcro strips, stickers, etc.)

Handles — (various materials can be assembled to create handles):

  • Dowels
  • Sticks: coffee stirrers, tongue depressors, popsicle, etc.
  • Straws (plastic or paper)
  • Knitting needles
  • Ribbons, yarns, strings, etc.
  • Spoons, Forks (plastic or other)
  • Zip ties

Holders — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Cups (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Lids (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Box containers (clear plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Bags (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Egg cartons
  • Fabric squares
  • Nets

External Resources

Please click on the following video links:

Maker Journal Pages

Teacher Notes

Preview all online resources, including videos, for appropriate student content use.

Show the video before students begin to ideate, prototype, and test, … ask questions of the students about each phase, and then lead students in a discussion on what it means to brainstorm…

Have students investigate containers made from recycled materials (e.g., on web).

Consider where your students can work on designing:

  • Do they  work in the same room where the materials are stored or do they need to move to another location?

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – A lot of meaningful conversations — between teacher and students and also among students.  Lots of questions asked by and of students. Teacher often manages the conversation, but the students and their thoughts, ideas, and questions determine the scope and direction of the conversation.

6 – Instead of teacher or textbook giving answers or info, students discover ideas through inquiry and exploration.  They figure out solutions and answers on their own.

7 – Tests and quizzes are sometimes needed, but focus assessment on student-created “learning artifacts” — students complete these products to demonstrate in-depth knowledge and understanding key topics.

8 – The focus is on the ultimate goal of student thinking… Every activity, lesson, and project is geared toward deepening and strengthening students’ critical thinking skills.  Students analyze, question, explore, and evaluate on a regular basis.

9 – Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

10 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and usable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

 

Learning Targets

Students will be able to:

  • Identify and explain the Ideate Phase of the Design Thinking Process.
  • Identify and explain all requirements and tote ideas they brainstormed.
  • Explain 5 rules for team brainstorming.

Assessment

Please click on the following links: 

 (one per student)

Review all student Makerspace Journal pages for formative assessment.

Design Challenge Overview

In the culminating project, student teams prototype, test, and reiterate, until a successful tote is agreed upon (having many sections for holding a variety of Makerspace items that can easily transport to other locations).  They put items into the compartments, check their design for durability, for easy access, portability, and all other requirements of the project. If the design doesn’t hold up, they redesign the model, test it again, and repeat this process until a final design is chosen.

Essential Questions:  

  • What are the 5 phases of the Design Thinking process?
  • Why is it important to plan, make, test, and revise before creating a design that works?
  • What if your idea doesn’t work?
  • Why are mistakes good?

LESSON PROCEDURE

Professional Preparation:

Lesson Format:   (Student teams in the Makerspace area)

  • Quick review of the Empathy , Define, and Ideate phases.
  • Quick review of brainstorming techniques.
  • Watch the video: Prototyping a kid’s toy . Discuss the toy maker’s thoughts during the Design Challenge process (e.g., Empathy: needed a toy to help kids learn about parts of the human body; Define: defining her problem and her audience –> making a toy for kids that is safe, interesting, easy to store, and educational; Prototype and Test — made several models of her idea, tried them out, redesigned them, took into consideration the criteria to meet, and thought about how to improve the design [like adding software to make the toy speak], until a final design was chosen).
  • Discuss the Prototype and Test phases of the Design Thinking process.
  • Teams review their Maker Journal entries from Lesson 3: Maker Journal Page: Our Tote Ideas!
  • Pass to each student: Design Challenge:  Maker Journal Page: Our Design Process!
  • Student teams prototype and test their designs in the Makerspace, choose a final design and record results.
  • Student teams share their final designs and explain the Design Thinking Process with an audience.
  • Students can independently explain how their team’s final model solved the Design Challenge problem.

Introduce the Design Challenge (Click + to open)

A Sample Teacher/Student(s) Dialog:  The following is a sample dialog between the teacher & the students for this lesson.

(Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis).

T: (do a short review of the Empathy, Define, and Ideate phases of the Design Thinking process).   So far your team has been thinking about how to make a tote ….. you still need to prototype and test your designs. Before you do, I have a short video to show and I’d like you to notice how the maker in this video uses the Prototype, and Test phases of the Design Thinking process to make a kid’s toy —

(show the video: Prototyping a kid’s toy )

T: Why kind of  toy did she want to make for kids?  

S: She wanted to make a toy that would help kids ages 3 to 5 years to understand parts of the human body in a fun way!

S: She wanted to make a toy that had mixing parts that were large enough so kids wouldn’t choke on them, that was easy to store and safe to handle!

T:  She created many different models, redesigned what didn’t work, thought about the criteria she needed to meet, and how to improve her design.

T: This process of making different models is the Prototype phase of the Design thinking process! Redesigning and testing designs is know as the Test phase of the Design thinking process!

T: What was one of her ideas for improving her design? 

S: She thought about adding a way to make parts of the toy speak to the user when different parts of the puzzle were put together… (answers vary)

T: Then she came up with her final design!  Your teams have been looking into making totes for your Maker spaces…. today you will prototype,test, and finally design your own tote! 

T: Engineers design things using some rules about how the designs must behave or work.  These rules are called criteria.  Engineers can run out of materials, money, time to build, or space in which to build something.  In other words there are limits on how something can be built.  These limits are called constraints.  Let’s discuss the criteria and constraints for this Design Challenge (Discuss criteria and constraints with students, and come up with an agreed upon list together of criteria and constraints that all the teams will abide by in this Design Challenge.  The following serves as an sample list of criteria and constraints):

Criteria & Constraints

The criteria and constraints for this challenge are below (suggestion: list on board or copy onto handouts).

Criteria (design requirements) Constraints (design limitations)
  • Tote Design must be easily put together and taken apart
  • Tote Design is made up of 5 types of adjoining compartments; 2 of which are the same type
  • Tote Design is easy to carry to other places
  • Tote Design must be built with materials provided from the Makerspace
  • Tote Design must be completed and tested within 30 minutes
  • Tote Design must hold  8 sets of different materials —  one set per adjoining compartment in addition to connectors/fasteners and/or adhesives.

 

Ideate
Students learned about the Ideate phase in Lesson 3. Keep in mind students may choose to or need to return to this phase as the iterate.  

Student Directions (Click + to open)

A Sample Teacher/Student(s) Dialog:  The following is a sample dialog between the teacher & the students for this lesson.

(Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis).

T:  Recall when you ideated a tote with your team in Lesson 3.  In your Maker Journals you recorded what your tote would carry, what requirements you had to meet, and then you brainstormed ideas for designs on the Maker Journal page “Our Tote Ideas!” that might satisfy those requirements.  Let’s share out what the Ideate phase means to you …

S: (answers vary….)

(Pass out Maker Journal pages to students: Design Challenge:  Maker Journal Page: Our Design Process!)

T:  Let’s review the Empathy, Define, and Ideate phases of this Design Challenge;

  • Empathy: we pondered how recycled materials can help us solve problems? 
  • Define:  our problem was deciding how to build a simple tote with multiple components to carry Makerspace materials from one location to another easily.
  • Ideate: we brainstormed and recorded many ideas for a maker tote design to solve the problem.

T:  Write in your Journals how you used the Empathy, Define, and Ideate phases in this Design process so far…

 

Prototype

Students build models of their tote ideas during this phase of the Design Thinking process, keeping in mind all criteria and constraints. (Remind students they may choose to or need to return to this phase as they iterate)

Student Directions (Click + to open)

A Sample Teacher/Student(s) Dialog:  The following is a sample dialog between the teacher & the students for this lesson.

(Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis).

T:  In your teams, gather the materials you need to prototype designs for your Maker totes.  Make notes as you go along to keep track of what works and what does not. 

Test your Design

Students iterate building, testing, redesigning, and retesting the design model until all requirements are met. (Keep in mind students may choose to or need to return to this phase as the iterate)

Student Directions (Click + to open)

A Sample Teacher/Student(s) Dialog:  The following is a sample dialog between the teacher & the students for this lesson.

(Note:  T stands for teacher, and S stands for student, with additional advice in parenthesis).

T: (allow students time to build, test, retest, their tote designs. Remind them to record how they used the prototype and test phases on their

Design Challenge:  Maker Journal Page: Our Design Process!. After time is called, bring all student teams together).

T:  (Pass out to each student: Design Challenge:   Maker Journal Page: Our Final Tote Design!)  Each of you has participated in designing a team Maker Tote while following the Design Thinking process. Record your final tote design comments on this Maker Journal page (allow 5 minutes for them to record information, and then bring everyone’s attention into a group discussion).

T:  Let’s share out what your teams created! (allow each team to present their final design tote creation, and to explain to the class any changes they made along the way).

S: (answers vary….)

T: Were any of your ideas mistakes? What do you learn from mistakes?

S: (answers vary….) — mistakes make you think harder about making better decisions …

T: Scientists have discovered that mistakes actually make your brain grow! 

T: If you had other material choices, what would you have done differently?  Why?

S: (answers vary….)

T:  Share out what you learned in this Design Challenge …

S: (answers vary….)

(suggestion: at another time students present their findings in front of an audience — e.g., peers, teachers, parents, etc.)


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

These are the five phases of the design thinking model:

EMPATHIZE: Work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom you are designing.  Do this through observation, interaction, and immersing yourself in their experiences.

DEFINE: Process and synthesize the findings from your empathy work in order to form a user point of view that you will address with your design.

IDEATE: Explore a wide variety of possible solutions through generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and explore a range of ideas.

PROTOTYPE: Transform your ideas into a physical form so that you can experience and interact with them and, in the process, learn and develop more empathy.

TEST: Try out high-resolution products and use observations and feedback to refine prototypes, learn more about the user, and refine your original point of view.

The Design Thinking Process | ReDesigning Theater. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://dschool.stanford.edu/redesigningtheater/the-design-thinking-process/

Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Design Challenge Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box

-or-

Multiples of common recycled materials, such as:

Fasteners — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Clips (binder, paper, etc.)
  • Rubber bands
  • String, ribbons, etc.
  • Adhesives (tape, glue dots, velcro strips, stickers, etc.)

Handles — (various materials can be assembled to create handles):

  • Dowels
  • Sticks: coffee stirrers, tongue depressors, popsicle, etc.
  • Straws (plastic or paper)
  • Knitting needles
  • Ribbons, yarns, strings, etc.
  • Spoons, Forks (plastic or other)
  • Zip ties

Holders — (various sizes & types of the following):

  • Cups (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Lids (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Box containers (clear plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Bags (plastic, paper, etc.)
  • Egg cartons
  • Fabric squares
  • Nets

External Resources

Please click on the following video link:

Maker Journal Pages

Please click on the following links:

Teacher Notes

Preview all online resources, including videos, for appropriate student content use.

Show the video before students begin to ideate, prototype, and test, … ask questions of the students about each phase, and then lead students in a discussion on what it means to brainstorm…

Have students investigate containers made from recycled materials (e.g., on web).

Consider where your students can work on designing:

  • Do they  work in the same room where the materials are stored or do they need to move to another location?

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – A lot of meaningful conversations — between teacher and students and also among students.  Lots of questions asked by and of students. Teacher often manages the conversation, but the students and their thoughts, ideas, and questions determine the scope and direction of the conversation.

6 – Instead of teacher or textbook giving answers or info, students discover ideas through inquiry and exploration.  They figure out solutions and answers on their own.

7 – Tests and quizzes are sometimes needed, but focus assessment on student-created “learning artifacts” — students complete these products to demonstrate in-depth knowledge and understanding key topics.

8 – The focus is on the ultimate goal of student thinking… Every activity, lesson, and project is geared toward deepening and strengthening students’ critical thinking skills.  Students analyze, question, explore, and evaluate on a regular basis.

9 – Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

10 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and usable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

Students will be able to:

  • Identify and explain the Prototype and Test Phases of the Design Thinking Process.
  • Identify and explain the entire Design Thinking Process; especially as it applies to their Maker Tote Final Design.
  • Present their findings in front of an audience.

Assessment

Please click on the following links: 

 (one per student)

Review all student Makerspace Journal pages for formative assessment.