This inquiry unit takes students through a series of 3 lessons leading to a final Design Challenge. Each focuses on understanding the difference between perimeter and area of rectangles, while acquiring an appreciation for renewable sources of energy; especially solar energy.  Students begin by investigating types and needs for alternate sources of energy. They look for rectangles in real-life, derive and then make sense of the formulas for perimeter and areas of rectangles by  creating “quilts” from unit squares. This leads to examining different styles of rectangular rooftops, and creating rectangular A-frame rooftops experimenting with certain perimeter and area measures. The Design Challenge has student teams cover as much of their A-frame rooftops as possible with square solar panels; analyzing and recording the best solution for their roofs with the least cost and highest energy output per solar panel.

Educational outcomes

  • Lesson 1:  In the Empathy phase, students understand a real-world problem – How can you use the power of the sun to save energy?
  • Lesson 2: In the Define phase, students analyze a real world use for and derive the formulas for area & perimeter by creating “quilts” from unit squares.
  • Lesson 3: In another Define phase, students investigate roofs, create an A-frame roof, and describe how to find the formulas for its perimeter and area.
  • Design Challenge:  In this phase, students use square “solar” panels (having different costs and energy outputs) to design a solar paneled A-frame roof, covering as much roof space as possible with the lowest panel cost and the highest panel energy output.

STEAM INTEGRATION

4-ESS3-1

  • Energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment
  • There are energy sources that help the environment and others that do not help the environment
  • Students recognize and record many sources of renewable energy
  • Students recognize the sun as one renewable source of energy

4MD.A.3

  • Given the perimeter of a quilt, explain how to find its area.
  • Given the area and width of an entire quilt describe how to find its perimeter.
  • Derive the area formula of a rectangle as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
  • Derive the perimeter formula of a rectangle as having to add the lengths and widths of all the sides.
  • Given a fixed area for 1 side of an A-frame roof, describe how to find the perimeter.
  • Given a fixed perimeter for 1 side of an A-frame roof, describe how to find the area.
  • Show the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
  • Show the perimeter formula as an addition equation with lengths and widths.

 

 

Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Unit Materials

List all materials needed for the entire unit. Link Makerspace-in-a-Box kit. List any substitutions, apps, software, measuring tools, classroom tools, etc.

Maker Journal Pages

Include a link to every pdf student page in the unit. (Media Library)

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page

Lesson 2 Maker Journal Page

etc.

Design Thinking Overview

Our design thinking units have five phases based on the d.school’s model. Each phase can be repeated to allow students to re-work and iterate while developing deeper understanding of the core concepts. These are the five phases of the design thinking model:

EMPATHIZE: Work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom you are designing.  Do this through observation, interaction, and immersing yourself in their experiences.

DEFINE: Process and synthesize the findings from your empathy work in order to form a user point of view that you will address with your design.

IDEATE: Explore a wide variety of possible solutions through generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and explore a range of ideas.

PROTOTYPE: Transform your ideas into a physical form so that you can experience and interact with them and, in the process, learn and develop more empathy.

TEST: Try out high-resolution products and use observations and feedback to refine prototypes, learn more about the user, and refine your original point of view.

The Design Thinking Process | ReDesigning Theater. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://dschool.stanford.edu/redesigningtheater/the-design-thinking-process/

STEAM Integrated Standards

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.A.3 Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real-world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

4-ESS3-1. Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment. [Clarification Statement: Examples of renewable energy resources could include wind energy, water behind dams, and sunlight; non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels and fissile materials. Examples of environmental effects could include loss of habitat due to dams, loss of habitat due to surface mining, and air pollution from burning of fossil fuels.]

 

 

 

Suggestions for pacing and differentiation

Suggest lessons that could be dropped or suggestions for 40 minute stand alone versions of lessons, etc.

Lesson Overview

Brief description of the lesson and standards addressed (by abbreviation). Describe specific aspects of standard that are being addressed if not all aspects are addressed in the lesson.

 

Essential Questions:

Bullet list of guiding questions teachers should use when coaching students in the content.

 

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Any teacher directions not given in the sidebar go here before Student Directions

Student Direction

Sample teacher and student dialog. Include reference to Maker Journal page and button to link to student maker journal page.

T:

S:

T:

 


Concept Quick Reference

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

Media

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discover in their research. Students should also share the difficulties that they discovered in transporting freshwater.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discovered in their research. Students should also share about the difficulties in transporting freshwater.

Lesson Overview

Brief description of the lesson and standards addressed (by abbreviation). Describe specific aspects of standard that are being addressed if not all aspects are addressed in the lesson.

 

Essential Questions:

Bullet list of guiding questions teachers should use when coaching students in the content.

 

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Any teacher directions not given in the sidebar go here before Student Directions

Student Direction

Sample teacher and student dialog. Include reference to Maker Journal page and button to link to student maker journal page.

T:

S:

T:

 


Concept Quick Reference

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

Media

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discover in their research. Students should also share the difficulties that they discovered in transporting freshwater.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discovered in their research. Students should also share about the difficulties in transporting freshwater.

Lesson Overview

Brief description of the lesson and standards addressed (by abbreviation). Describe specific aspects of standard that are being addressed if not all aspects are addressed in the lesson.

 

Essential Questions:

Bullet list of guiding questions teachers should use when coaching students in the content.

 

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Any teacher directions not given in the sidebar go here before Student Directions

Student Direction

Sample teacher and student dialog. Include reference to Maker Journal page and button to link to student maker journal page.

T:

S:

T:

 


Concept Quick Reference

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

Media

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discover in their research. Students should also share the difficulties that they discovered in transporting freshwater.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discovered in their research. Students should also share about the difficulties in transporting freshwater.

Introduce the Design Challenge

Sample student & Teacher Dialog. Should generate excitement and connect with Empathy phase discoveries. Teacher needs to provide criteria and constraints or develop them with students here.

T:

S:

T:

S:

Criteria & Constraints

Review the criteria and constraints with students.  Engineers design things using some rules about how the designs must behave or work.  These rules are called criteria.  Engineers can run out of materials, money, time to build, or space in which to build something.  In other words there are limits on how something can be built.  These limits are called constraints.  The criteria and constraints for this challenge are below.

 

Criteria (design requirements) Constraints (design limitations)
  • Model spans minimum of 2 ft.
  • Model must be easily put together and taken apart
  • Model can continuously hold a designated load
  • Model is portable
  • Model must be built with materials provided
  • Model must be completed and tested in the given time
  • Model must include 8 different materials in addition to fasteners and/or adhesives
  • Model must not be secured to the ground or testing area in any way

 

Ideate
Give a brief description of student activity during this phase. (Keep in mind students may choose to or need to return to this phase as the iterate)

Student Directions

T:

S:

T:

S:

 

Prototype

Give a brief description of student activity during this phase. (Keep in mind students may choose to or need to return to this phase as the iterate)

Student Directions

T:

S:

T:

S:

 

Test your Design

Give a brief description of student activity during this phase. (Keep in mind students may choose to or need to return to this phase as the iterate) Include references to any rubrics, criteria and constraint checklists or Maker Journal Pages included in the assessemnt

Student Directions

T:

S:

T:

S:

 

 

Concept Quick Reference

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Design Challenge Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

Media

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discover in their research. Students should also share the difficulties that they discovered in transporting freshwater.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discovered in their research. Students should also share about the difficulties in transporting freshwater.