Grade Level:  4-5

Can you create an electromagnet?

This inquiry unit takes students through a sequence of lessons that focus on NGSS standard 4-PS3-2.  (make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transformed from one place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric current). This kit is connected to RAFT’s electrical engineering designed for middle school students.

Lessons in this unit: This unit begins with an empathy lesson that connects how important magnets are to our modern lives. The first define lesson then dives into core concepts of magnetism, and the second define lesson connects the relationship between electricity and magnetism. The ideate, prototype, and test phases of design thinking model are combined in a final project that challenges students to create an electromagnet.

Content Standard addressed in this inquiry unit:

NGSS 3-PS2-4 Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.

NGSS-PS3-2 Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

NGSS 4-PS2-4 Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.

Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Unit Materials

This unit can be completed using RAFT’s Electromagnetism Generator Kit or with the following materials:

Maker Journal Pages

Design Thinking Overview

Our design thinking units have five phases based on the d.school’s model. Each phase can be repeated to allow students to re-work and iterate while developing deeper understanding of the core concepts. These are the five phases of the design thinking model:

EMPATHIZE: Work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom you are designing.  Do this through observation, interaction, and immersing yourself in their experiences.

DEFINE: Process and synthesize the findings from your empathy work in order to form a user point of view that you will address with your design.

IDEATE: Explore a wide variety of possible solutions through generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and explore a range of ideas.

PROTOTYPE: Transform your ideas into a physical form so that you can experience and interact with them and, in the process, learn and develop more empathy.

TEST: Try out high-resolution products and use observations and feedback to refine prototypes, learn more about the user, and refine your original point of view.

The Design Thinking Process | ReDesigning Theater. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://dschool.stanford.edu/redesigningtheater/the-design-thinking-process/

STEAM Integrated Standards

NGSS 4-PS3-2 Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

NGSS 3-PS2-4 Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.

NGSS 4-PS2-4 Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.

 

EmpathizeUnderstanding a real-world situation and feeling what another person is feeling.

Empathy lesson(s) –  aims to develop, engage, and provide student ownership of understanding the problem and subject deeply.

Essential Questions:

Where do magnets (magnetism) exist in our everyday lives?

How has magnetism shaped our modern world? and the natural world? 

Lesson Overview:

This lesson begins by getting students to question how often and where they encounter magnets in their everyday lives. Students will share out in groups, and discussion will be guided by educators toward the fact that magnets exist almost everywhere in our modern lives (learn more under Quick Concept). The empathy lesson will continue with research and presentation assignments on different topics related to electromagnetism. The research/presentations will introduce core concepts which will be more thoroughly explored in the define lessons. The research and presentation assignment is an ideal area for teachers to reinforce ELL lessons and presentation tools currently being taught.

Preparation:

Build up personal excitement for the wonderful world of magnetism.

  • Prepare videos to show.
  • Plan to facilitate whole group discussion.
  • Preselect groups and assign research/presentation.
  • Build in time for students to research and present.

Lesson procedure:

  1. Introduce students that this unit will be covering electromagnetism. Ask students what they currently know about magnets?
  2. Assign students to work in groups, and think about how often they encounter magnets (or the effects of magnetism) in their daily lives?
  3. Guide the discussion to an understanding that magnetism exists in almost all aspect of modern life, and especially with electricity.   Show video: “Everyday uses of Magnets”.
  4. Print and pass out MakerJournal Research page. Assign research topics to groups. Topic includes:
    • The discovery and early uses of magnets.
    • Magnets and navigation and exploration.
    • Magnetism and animal life.
    • Magnetism and earth.
    • Michael Faraday’s contribution to our understanding of magnetism.
    • James Clark Maxwell’s contribution to our understanding of magnetism.
    • How do magnets work?
    • What is the relationship between electricity and magnetism?
  5. Guide students to research information using multiple trusted sources (learn more) and present with proper attributions.
  6. Allow students to present and answer questions from their peers.

Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog.  

T: Today, we’re going to start a unit on electromagnetism. Believe it or not, magnets have played an essential role in science and our daily lifes. We’re going to learn about how magnets work, and a bit about electricity, and how electricity and magnets are connected. Let’s focus today’s lesson on magnets, what do you know about them?

S: They stick to each other. They can push and pull.

T: The do stick to each other, but do they stick to everything? And they do push and pull, but what are the reasons why magnets push and pull? Don’t worry, you’ll find out together. Let’s take a moment now, and do a thinking exercise. I want you to think about your daily lives, from the moment you get up to the moment you go to bed. During those hours, how often do you encounter magnets, or the force of magnetism? I want you all to talk to your group members, and lists those moments.

S: “We came up with a list, and we encounter magnets when we open up our fridge, when go into our cars, when we use our computers, at school there are magnets on white board, there are probably magnets in our tv as well.”

T: “Magnets and the force of magnetism are in almost everything we do. When we listen to the radio, that’s magnetism. When we get an x-ray that’s magnetism. When we use our computers, that’s magnetism. But almost each and every one of you today encountered magnetism when you used electricity. ”

S: “How does electricity come from magnets?”

T: “That’s a great question, and we are going to figure that out together. But first, like true scientists, we’re going to do some research first. Let’s work in groups, and I will assign you all some topics to research, and we’ll come back to present to each other and learn as a group.”

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Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

 

Uses of Magnets in Our Daily Lives

“You come into contact with magnets many times in the course of your daily life. They play an important role in a wide range of devices including simple toys, computers, credit cards, MRI machines and business equipment. Magnets range in size from barely-visible specks to industrial monsters weighing tons. Though some are plainly visible, others are often tucked inside the inner workings of appliances and other household, medical and commercial items, doing their job silently and unseen.” – Faith Chandler, Uses of Magnets in Our Daily Life

Lesson Materials

Materials:

  • Pen and Pencil
  • Paper

Tech

  • Computers or mobile devices
  • Internet access

External Resources

Maker Journal Pages

MakerJournal Research Page

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Teacher Notes

Conducting Web Research

Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches.  Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information on atomic structure, electric forces, static electricity, and fields.  Sites having .edu or .org are often more reliable for accurate information on a topic.  Sites ending in .com tend to be focused on specific products to be sold to a consumer and therefore the information can be biased.

Learning Targets

  • Students will be able to connect magnetism to historical discoveries, natural-world processes, and societal application.

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Have students correct their presentation for research quality and sourcing, and for proper grammar.

Peer Assessment

Have students share what they learn through group’s presentation.

Essential Questions:

What are the behaviors or properties of magnets?

What is a magnet? What is magnetic? What is a non-magnet? 

Lesson Overview:

In this define lesson, students begin by experimenting and tinkering with magnets and noting what they see. The lesson continues with students building a levitating magnetic pole, and observing the repulsion force of magnets. Students will then participate in a class activity demonstrating the relationship between magnets, magnetic, and non-magnetic.

Preparation:

Build up personal excitement for the wonderful world of magnetism.

  • Prepare videos to show.
  • Plan to facilitate whole group discussion.
  • Prepare material for levitating magnets.
  • Print out MakerJournal activity.

Lesson procedure:

  1. Remind students that they have researched different subjected related to magnetism and will use that knowledge in the lesson. Like scientists and engineers, it will be important for them to keep a science journal.
  2. Assign students to work in groups, have students tinker with magnets while writing down their general observations in their journals.  Guide students to note different materials that magnets work with, and think of ways they can measure the effects of magnets.
  3. Have students share and discuss their observations.
  4. Show RAFT’s Levitating Magnetic Pole Youtube video to students. The video contains instructions to build a magnetic similar to this RAFT idea sheet. Challenge students to find a way to measure how much weight is needed to make the two magnets touch and cancel out the repulsion force. What happens if there are two magnets on the bottom repelling two magnets on top? Will it require more weight to get the magnets to touch? Challenge if they can develop a way to graph the strength of their donut magnets. Have students write down their observations in their notebook.
  5. Show YouTube Video: Magnets, How Do They Work?.
  6. Remind students the difference between elements that are a magnet, elements that are magnetic, and elements that are non-magnetic. (Learn more)
  7. Have students play RAFT’s MakerJournal Activity:  “Magnet, Magnetic, or Not-Magnet”.
  8. Ask students recap by sharing their reflection and curiosity about the core concepts and their learning experience so far.

Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog.  This sample demonstrates how facilitators can have students experience phenomena either first hand or through media representations.  It also provides an example of how to connect instruction to the students’ home, neighborhood, community, and/or culture.  Notice in the example how students have opportunities to connect their explanation of a phenomenon to their own experience.

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Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

Magnets are materials that are made from Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron. Subatomically, all their electrons are pointed in the same direction, the aggregated strength of each electron gives the material the strong N and S polarization in its’ magnetic field that makes it a magnet.

Magnetic materials are mixtures of matter, and contain nickel, cobalt, and iron. Subatomically, all their electrons are pointed in random directions; however, when a magnetic field is introduced to these materials, the electrons of nickel, cobalt, and iron embedded inside will rearrange their direction and the material will become magnetic.

Non-magnetic are materials that do not that elements of nickel, cobalt, and iron embedded inside and will not turn magnetic even when a magnetic field is introduced near it.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

RAFT’s Exploring Electromagnetism Kit

  • Styrofoam base
  • Straws or pencil
  • Donut Magnets
  • Plastic Disks
  • Tape

Teacher Notes

Conducting Web Research

Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches.  Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information on atomic structure, electric forces, static electricity, and fields.  Sites having .edu or .org are often more reliable for accurate information on a topic.  Sites ending in .com tend to be focused on specific products to be sold to a consumer and therefore the information can be biased.

Learning Targets

  • Students will conduct an investigation to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

 

Peer Assessment

 

Teacher Assessment

Define –state or describe exactly the nature, scope, or meaning of.

Define phase – Lessons that builds on student’s methods, skills, knowledge of core concepts.

 

Essential Question:

How does a compass work? 

Why is Earth a magnet?  

What happens when an electrical field is introduced to a magnet?  

Lesson Overview:

In this next define phase, students will explore and observe the force of magnetism on a planetary scale, and explore the relationship between magnetism and electricity.  Using RAFT’s electromagnet kit, students will build a floating compass, and observe that magnetism is an invisible force that is tied into the mechanics of our planet. Students will introduce an electrical field and see the influence on the compass, and dive deeper into understanding the relationship between magnets and electricity.

 

Professional Preparation:

  • Pre-watch any videos on magnetism that will be shown.
  • Pre-build floating compass as a demonstration.
  • Prepare materials needed for experiments.

Lesson Procedure:

  1. Solicit from entire class what were some key takeaways from their peers’ presentations on “Discovery and Early use of magnets,” and “Magnets and Navigation”?  Guide questions to remind students that people from centuries ago observed that magnets had the ability to move certain objects, and that magnets had the ability to move and align themselves in a certain direction (early compass).
  2. Divide students into groups and highlight that we’ll be building our own compass. Have student watch RAFT’s Floating Compass Youtube video and follow the instructions. If you do not have Exploring Magnetism kit, you can use RAFT’s Floating Magnet Ideasheet with instructions on how to build something similar.
  3. Lead the discussion to an understanding that the Earth has a magnetic field that influences the magnets in our compasses, and also protects us from solar radiation, help animals navigate in their migration patterns, and gives us the phenomenon of the Northen lights (learn more).  Challenge students to question why the north pole of a magnet will point to the north pole of the Earth, when we know that north and north will repel each other? (Learn More)
  4. This step can done as a demonstration or a carefully guided experiment, because it requires introducing an electric current close to the floating compass. Make a tin foil wire and attach it to AA batteries, and bring it close to the magnet as show on the video.  Or show Youtube video: The Deflection of a Magnetic Compass Needle By A Current In A Wire. Have students note how compass acts when electricity is nearby. Highlight that understanding that electricity can influence magnets, and vice versa is the basic knowledge which we use to create electricity for the world.
  5. Ask students recap by sharing their reflection and curiosity about the core concepts and their learning experience so far.

 

Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog.

 


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

Why does the north end of a magnet point to the north pole of the earth? We know that the north end of a magnet will be repelled by the north end of another magnet, but attracted to the southern end of that same magnet. Shouldn’t the south end of the magnet being attracted to the north pole?

The answer simply is that when we created maps, and models of the world, we arbitrarily bisected the earth into a northern hemisphere and a southern hemisphere in accordance with our perception. The magnetic field of the northern hemisphere actually is a magnetic south pole. The earth’s magnetic field works with the southern magnetic field being in the northing hemisphere, and the northern magnetic field being in the southern hemisphere. The north end of a magnet is attracted the Earth’s southern magnetic field which is located in an area we have labeled the northern hemisphere.

 

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • Doggie Magnets
  • Plastic Containers to hold water
  • Plastic caps

Maker Journal Pages

Floating Compass Idea Sheet

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Teacher Notes

Put all materials in a location that is safely accessible to students.  Keep all wires and leads untangled and check light bulbs to identify those that are broken or burned out.

Learning Targets

  • Students will explore the cause-and-effect relationships that affect the magnitudes of electric forces
  • Students will use observations to develop explanations for how electrical energy moves

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student will assess their understanding by building an explanation of why and how compasses work with the earth.

 

Define –state or describe exactly the nature, scope, or meaning of.

Define phase – Lessons that builds on student’s methods, skills, knowledge of core concepts.

 

Essential Question:

What is electricity?  How do we create electricity with magnets?

How does a generator work? What type of energy is converted? How does this affect our environment?

How does this affect our environment?

 

 

 Lesson Overview:

In this define phase, students will learn that electricity is a foundation of how our world works with an empathy exercise. The lesson continues with students watching a video on electricity and magnetism.  The lesson continues with a discussion that defines the core scientific concept that: electricity is created when electrons flow. The flow of electrons will be reinforced with an activity that demonstrates how we use magnetism to move electrons, and established the mechanical principles of how motors, generators, turbines, and dynamo works. Students will cap the lesson by creating RAFT’s Simple Motor kit.

 

Professional Preparation:

  • Pre-watch videos needed for the lesson.
  • Print out material for Flowing Electron exercise.
  • Prepare materials needed for RAFT’s shake generator.
  • Build up knowledge about energy, electricity, and generators.

Lesson Procedure:

  1. Turn off all electricity in your classroom. Ask students what a world without electricity might look and sound like. Print and pass out MakerJournal Free Write, A World With Electricity. Have students work in group, each group will be assigned a field or industry of society and asked to write how that segment might be affected without electricity. Some examples are:
    • Healthcare
    • Sports
    • Tech / Communication
    • Food workers
    • Transportation
  2. Show first 1:40 YouTube video clip of “What is Electric Current?” to highlight that electricity is created when electrons flow (learn more). Show first 4:00 minutes of “How Magnets Produce Electricity” to highlight that rotating a magnetic field will cause electrons to flow. Lead the discussion so it that reinforces these core concepts.
  3. Print out MakerJournal Flow of Electrons Exercise. Two students will work at north and south end of a magnetic field, while rest of students will act as electrons. When magnetic field cuts through electrons, electrons will be sent of walking to another area. Highlight that this example is the basics of how we create electricity, we find ways to spin a magnet around coils of wires.
  4. Lead discussion and show picture examples of motors and generators. Highlight that what motors and generators do is: convert mechanic energy (system to spin a magnet) to electrical energy (the movement of electrons). [Learn More] Show YouTube video on “Electricity Generation,” and highlight that our current system to spin magnets still produces waste, challenge students to imagine other systems we can use to spin magnets and produce electricity that creates less pollution.
  5. Ask students to recap by sharing their reflection and curiosity about the core concepts and their learning experience so far.

Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog.

T: Show students pictures of a common diodes.  You can find several pictures using Google Images.  “What is the name of this electrical component?  Has anyone seen these before?”

S: “Is it a resistor?”  “It looks like a diode.”  “I saw these on a computer motherboard before!”

T: “We are going to construct circuits that contain a special component called a diode.  Diodes act as a one-way valve for electrical current in a circuit.  You will be building circuits together in both series and parallel configurations that contain a diode and two light bulbs.  You will have to discover the correct way to connect the diode within the circuit so that both bulbs light in one configuration and only one bulb lights in another configuration.  I will not be telling you how to assemble the circuits, but you are already familiar with series and parallel circuits.  Building on this knowledge and applying what we will soon learn about diodes, you will be successful!”

S: “A one-way valve only allows stuff to move one way, so if electrical current can only move one way through a circuit, the light bulb might not light.”  “The current cannot flow backwards across the diode!”

T: “This is what you will soon find out.  Remember to think about electrical current in terms of electrical forces pushing energy through the circuit.  We will relate this concept to the role of the diode and its attributes (its characteristics that allow it to behave as it does).  You will record your observations and ideas in the Maker Journal Page for the lesson.”

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Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • None

External Resources

YouTube Videos:

US Department of Energy’s “How Magnets Produce Electricity.”

Spark Fun’s “What is Electric Current?”

Energy 101’s “Electricity Generation.” 

Maker Journal Pages

Flow of Electrons

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Teacher Notes

  • Place all materials on a table or cart that is safely accessible to all students
  • Make sure students immediately report broken or burned out components
  • Encourage students to review information on electrical forces, voltage, current, etc.

Learning Targets

  • Students will be able to build circuits containing diodes
  • Students will be able to describe the role of diodes in electric circuits and their affect on electric forces in a circuit

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Each student uses a highlighter to trace the path of electric current through each of the circuits drawn in the Maker Journal page.

Peer Assessment

Student teams share their highlighted electric current paths and discuss them in terms of electric forces.

Teacher Assessment

Call on individual students to elaborate on their circuit designs by completing the sentence frame below.  Make corrections or clarify as needed:

  • “This circuit demonstrates (reverse / forward) bias across the diode because …”

Design Challenge Overview

In the culminating project, students are challenged to work as a team and create a way to spin a generator to power a LED light for 10 seconds. Using the prior knowledge obtained in the empathy and define stages of the engineering design process, students will generate ideas and themes, build prototypes, test and reflect on whether their design meets and exceeds the criteria and constraints.

 

 

Essential Questions:  

  • Challenge: Can your group create a device to spin the generator and power up the LED light bulb? 
  • What were you able to learn by testing your design? How can you use that knowledge to iterate your design?
  • Your device converted what type of energy into electrical energy?

LESSON PROCEDURE

  1. Remind students that electricity is an integral part of how our society works. A large majority of the world still creates energy by creating a way to spin a magnet around a coil of wires, converting mechanical energy into electricity. Ask students what are some current methods we use to spin turbines and produce electricity?
  2. Have students follow RAFT’s ElectroMagnet Generator Youtube Video with instructions to build their first generator.
  3. Present to students that their challenge: is to create a system to spin the magnets and keep the LED lit for 10 seconds.
  4. Introduce students to suggested criteria and constraints of their Design Challenge.
    Criteria (design requirements) Constraints (design limitations)
    • The device must light up the LED light bulb for 10 seconds.
    • The devices must use materials approved by teachers.
    • MakerJournal must include sketch of design, any results from testing, and ideas for improvement.
    • The device can not use batteries to spin the generator.
    • The device can not be human powered. You can not just spin it for 10 seconds.
  5. Allow students time to brainstorm, and sketch ideas in MakerJournal (Define and ideate stage).
  6. Allow students to build an initial design (prototype stage).
  7. Allow students to test and reflect (test stage).
  8. Allow students to iterate on their design (iteration cycle).
  9. Ask students to recap by sharing their reflection and curiosity about the core concepts and their learning experience so far.

Introduce the Design Challenge (Click + to open)

Criteria & Constraints

Remember, all engineers deal with criteria and constraints when engineering. Engineers design things using some rules about how the designs must behave or work.  These rules are called criteria.  Engineers can run out of materials, money, time to build, or space in which to build something.  In other words there are limits on how something can be built.  These limits are called constraints.  The criteria and constraints for this challenge are below.

Ideate

Have students work in groups, and brainstorm then sketch out their game board and circuitry on paper. Ask students to label key components of their game and of the circuitry of theeir game. Explain to students their sketches will be a part of their journal, and will be used to mark down where the device needs improvement.

Student Directions (Click + to open)

T: Now that we had practice creating a generator, here is your challenge. We will work in teams, and your challenge will be to create a system to light the LED light for 10 seconds. Here are some of the criteria and constraints.

Prototype

If a makerspace is available at your site, the prototyping phase is most conducive in this environment. Alternatively, supplies from RAFT’s Electrical Engineering module can be presorted on a table so that students can easily see, take, and return materials. Have students select a materials manager to bring supplies and avoid any potential traffic jams in the classroom. 

Display criteria and constraints rules somewhere visible to all students. Allow students 10-15 minutes of build time, and then 10 minutes of testing in front of the class. This structure works for classrooms with less space, limited the testing area. This encourages group presentation during the testing phase where everyone gets to see each group test and present their design.

 Alternatively, allow for 20-25 minutes of combined build and testing time. This structure works for larger classroom with more available testing areas, and students who work better through self-organizing. In this model, students get to test freely as they build, and can go through more iterations. 

Student Directions (Click + to open)

T: Let’s take our sketches and start creating our prototypes. Remember, only the supply coordinator should make it up to get supplies. We’ll have 15 minutes to try create our first prototype. Don’t worry about if you can’t finish on time, remember it’s our first prototype but we’ll have a second iteration.

S: We can make anything we want.

T: Yes, but remember it has to fit into the criteria and the constraints.

S: What happens if we need help?

T: First ask your team members, then if your whole team still need a bit of help, let an adult know.

Test and Reflect on your  Design

Testing can be done in groups with each group taking turns to present in class, this helps to build public speaking and is a fun way of learning that failure points in your device are completely a natural part of engineering. Testing can also be done during build time to reduce pressure and induce more participation. Have students come up to testing area, and demonstrate their completed system.

 

Student Directions (Click + to open)

Guiding Question:

How can you harness energy to spin the magnets?

In what ways can we get objects to move without using human or battery power?

Were some reasons why your device might not have worked as you planned?

How can you improve on your design?

Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

Engineering Design Process

The engineering design process is an iterative process. Through testing, and data collecting (or lessons learned) engineers recreate through several iterations the design changes progresses incrementally until a final solution is created. There are many examples of the engineering design process, but all will follow the same principles of understanding a problem, brainstorming ideas, prototyping a solution, testing the solution, and reiterating the process. 

Open and Close Circuits

A closed circuit board has a pathway for electrons to flow without interruptions. With all wires attached properly, and connected to an energy source like batteries, a close circuit should allow for electrons to flow to lights, speakers, and all components of the board.

An open circuit board might have the pathway for election to flow, but there is a gap somewhere that stops the cyclical flow, and the components of the board will not operate. A switch allows us to turn on and off a device by either breaking the pathway of electrons in the off position or be reconnecting the pathway of electrons.

Design Challenge Materials

Building Materials

  • all materials supplied in RAFT’s Electromagnetism Unit
  • any additional material around classroom.

External Resources

Maker Journal Pages

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Teacher Notes

Normalize that failing is a way of learning that is common for all people, even professionals such as engineers, scientists, doctors, lawyers, and athletes. Have signage around the class that supports growth mindsets. Use acronyms such as First Attempt In Learning (F.A.I.L).

Allow students to work through challenges, even if it seems they are having a tough time. Reference criteria and constraints to students as guideline, rules, and instructions for their design, and refrain from giving too much clarification. Students will get it.

Active Classroom

 

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

MS-PS3-3: Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
  • Students will apply prior knowledge to design, construct, and test a solution that transfers energy.
  • Students will apply prior knowledge to design, construct, and test a solution that can complete a circuit and manipulate the flow of electrons.

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discover in their research. Students should also share the difficulties that they discovered in transporting freshwater.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different critical uses for water and methods of freshwater transportation that they discovered in their research. Students should also share about the difficulties in transporting freshwater.