Students learn about DNA structure and function and its role as the mechanism of heredity through several lessons that include hands-on activities, video resources, discussions, and more!  Examples of topics covered include modeling the DNA molecule, base-pairing, DNA extraction, and applications of biotechnologies such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA fingerprinting.  The unit culminates in a design challenge where students design, build, and present a model of an organism according to specific criteria and constraints.

Educational outcomes

  • Lesson 1: Students build and use a DNA model and describe its role in cells
  • Lesson 2: Students build and use a DNA fingerprint model to describe genetic variation in offspring
  • Lesson 3: Students use an electrophoresis model to construct an Egyptian pedigree diagram
  • Lesson 4: Students conduct a DNA extraction and describe the processing of specific organelles during the procedure
  • Lesson 5: Students model the PCR process, and calculate and analyze DNA products after multiple PCR cycles

STEAM INTEGRATION

The unit integrates the use of technology in the form of online videos and web pages that students access in order to gain information on the science concepts covered in the unit.  For example, in Lesson 1 students access videos to learn more about how DNA contributes to the overall function of cells (MS-LS1-2). Students also explore applications of biotechnology in Lessons 2, & 5 (MS-LS4-5).  Lesson 5, which focuses on the PCR technique, incorporates the use of algebraic functions for calculating and analyzing quantities of DNA products for given numbers of PCR cycles (CCSS Math 8.F.B.5). This provides students with information to use for critical thinking and writing knowledgeably about how the technique leads to human influences on inherited traits.  Students learn about different types of cells, specific organelles, and their contribution to cell function in Lesson 4 (MS-LS1-1, MS-LS1-2). Lessons 2 & 3 lead students to understand that sexual reproduction results in genetic variation in organisms (MS-LS2-3).  The unit includes a design challenge to embed engineering principles such as designing within a defined set of criteria and constraints and following a design process.

Click on the “+” icon to open each section

Unit Materials

  • RAFT Makerspace-in-a-Box:
  • Various adhesives, connectors, and fasteners (tape, glue, paper clips, binder clips, double-sided adhesive foam, labels, stickers, rubber bands, other)
  • Building Materials (thread, yarn, wooden stir sticks, straws, spoons, pipette tips, laminate samples, dust covers, foam pieces, containers, cardboard, paper tubes, fabric scraps, scrap wood, cards, cups, other)
  • Scissors, hole punchers, pencils, markers, sticky notepads, rulers, whiteboards
  • Chenille stems (pipe cleaners)
  • Pony beads, six different colors
  • Plastic coffee straws, 7” (~18 cm) long
  • File folder labels
  • RAFT Strawberry DNA Illustrated Kit
  • DNA Fingerprint Bead Patterns (download)
  • Tech:  Computers or mobile devices, internet access

Maker Journal Pages

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page

Lesson 2 Maker Journal Page

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page

Lesson 4 Maker Journal Page

Lesson 5 Maker Journal Page

Design Challenge: Ideate Maker Journal Page

Design Challenge: Prototype Maker Journal Page

Design Challenge: Test Maker Journal Page

Design Thinking Overview

Our design thinking units have five phases based on the d.school’s model. Each phase can be repeated to allow students to re-work and iterate while developing deeper understanding of the core concepts. These are the five phases of the design thinking model:

EMPATHIZE: Work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom you are designing.  Do this through observation, interaction, and immersing yourself in their experiences.

DEFINE: Process and synthesize the findings from your empathy work in order to form a user point of view that you will address with your design.

IDEATE: Explore a wide variety of possible solutions through generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and explore a range of ideas.

PROTOTYPE: Transform your ideas into a physical form so that you can experience and interact with them and, in the process, learn and develop more empathy.

TEST: Try out high-resolution products and use observations and feedback to refine prototypes, learn more about the user, and refine your original point of view.

The Design Thinking Process | ReDesigning Theater. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://dschool.stanford.edu/redesigningtheater/the-design-thinking-process/

STEAM Integrated Standards

NGSS MS-LS1-1: Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.

NGSS MS-LS1-2: Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways the parts of cells contribute to the function.

NGSS MS-LS3-2: Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.

NGSS MS-LS4-5: Gather and synthesize information about technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

CCSS Mathematics 8.F.B.5: Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear).  Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

Suggestions for pacing and differentiation

  • Lesson 1 can be used as a stand-alone introduction to DNA structure
  • Lesson 3 may be skipped or used as a challenge for advanced students
  • Lesson 4 can be used to practice laboratory procedure and investigative technique
  • Reserve Lesson 5 for students who have a firm understanding of DNA structure, enzymes, and base-pairing

Lesson Overview

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the fundamental hereditary material for all living organisms.  The structure of DNA  was understood only after years of scientific research.  Although simple in structure, DNA carries the code for all the complexities of life.  In this lesson, students watch videos to learn or review the molecular structure of DNA and then follow a simple procedure to build a model that uses beads and chenille stems (pipe cleaners) to represent nucleotide components.  Students use the models to practice base-pairing rules, predict complementary sequences, and describe DNA’s main function in cells.  This helps students develop empathy for the simple yet complex structure of DNA and its role in heredity.

Essential Questions:

  • How can base-pairing (Chargaff’s rule) be used to predict complementary DNA sequences?
  • How does DNA contribute to the function of cells?

Lesson Procedure:

  1. Students work in teams of 3-4 and visit the web resources in the External Resources section (right) on DNA structure and function, recording their notes in the lesson Maker Journal page. (15 minutes)
  2. Call on a few students to share 1-2 of their notes with the class.  Provide clarification where necessary and allow peers to ask questions. (5 minutes)
  3. Explain that student teams will use six (6) different bead colors and a chenille stem (pipe cleaner) to build a model of DNA.  Determine the bead color scheme for the class and post on a whiteboard or flip chart.  Below is an example of a color scheme (your bead colors may vary).
  4. Distribute the beads and pipe cleaners to student teams.
  5. Each student in the team follows the procedure outlined in the Maker Journal page to build the DNA model.  Circulate around the room and provide assistance as needed. (15 minutes)
  6. Students in each team connect their individual models to form one long DNA model.
  7. Students draw the large team DNA models and color the drawing using colored pencils in the Maker Journal page. (10 minutes)
  8. Students respond to the reflection prompts in the Maker Journal page.  Call on 1-3 students to share their responses and clarify understanding as necessary. (10 minutes)

Example Bead Color-Coding Scheme:

  • Blue = adenine
  • Orange = thymine
  • Green = guanine
  • Red = cytosine
  • Purple = phosphate
  • Black = sugar

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog.

T: “What do you already know about DNA?  Do you know what the acronym DNA stands for?  Why is it important?”

S: “It is what gives us our traits.”  “DNA is the genetic stuff in cells!”  “They talk about it in police shows like CSI!”

T: “That’s right!  DNA is talked about a lot more in everyday language today than in previous years.  Today we are going to learn more about DNA, focusing the structure of the DNA molecule by using some web-based resources and then by building a physical model of the molecule.  This will allow us to understand its main function in cells, namely the carrier of genetic information.”

S: “I like discussing DNA and other CSI stuff with my siblings.  This is going to be so cool!”

(Click on the button to access the lesson Maker Journal page)

dl-student


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

History

DNA is the fundamental hereditary material for all living organisms.  The structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) was understood only after years of scientific research.  During the 1920s, English physician Frederick Griffith found that DNA from one organism can transform another organism.  The work of Avery, McLeod, and McCarty (1944) showed that DNA is the genetic material in cells.  In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase conducted studies that established DNA as the carrier of hereditary information.  In the early 1950s x-ray crystallography was used to get a rough picture of DNA structure.  This technique involves isolating and purifying a substance so that it can be made into a crystal.  Passing x-rays through the crystal produces a pattern used to infer the positions of atoms within the crystal, which allowed English chemist Rosalind Franklin and biophysicist Maurice Wilkins to produce an image of DNA.  Biochemist Erwin Chargaff found in 1950 that in DNA the amount of adenine (A) is equal to the amount of thymine (T) and the same relationship exists between guanine (G) and cytosine (C).  In addition, the total amount of adenine and guanine (purines) is equal to the total amount of thymine and cytosine (pyrimidines) along the DNA molecule.  This information is known as Chargaff’s rule.  English physicist Francis Crick and American geneticist James Watson combined all of these findings with modeling techniques used by American chemist Linus Pauling to produce one coherent DNA model in 1953.

Molecular Structure

There are four key features that define DNA structure:

  • Double helix (double-stranded cylindrical spiral)
  • Uniform diameter
  • Right-handed (twists to the right)
  • Anti-parallel (the two strands elongate in opposite directions)

The two outside strands are composed of sugar and phosphate molecules while the inner rungs of the helix are made of the nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, which are held together via hydrogen bonds.  Adenine (a purine) always bonds with thymine (a pyrimidine) while guanine (purine) always bonds with cytosine (pyrimidine).  This pattern is called complementary base pairing (see below).  The AT and CG pairs in the double helix have equal lengths and fit identically into the helix.  This is why DNA has a uniform diameter.  Although simple in structure, DNA can carry the code for all the complexities of life because of its incredible length, which is achieved by stacking the base pairs efficiently in a compact space.  Human DNA contains about 3 billion base pairs.  If this bead model were that long, it would cover over 60,000 km (37,000 miles) and would wrap around the Earth at the equator 1½ times!

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • Chenille stems
  • pony beads, 6 different colors
  • Colored pencils

Tech

  • Computers or mobile devices
  • Internet access

External Resources

[VIDEO] [TITLE of Video] [link to video- new window]
[PDF] [TITLE of PDF DOCUMENT] [link to PDF- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

Differentiate instruction by using these suggestions:

  • You may opt to have each team create their own scheme rather than provide a class-based scheme
  • You can have students draw one strand based on their model and give the drawing to another student group to complete with a complementary strand drawing
  • Create a kinesthetic activity, ask students to line up and position themselves as though they are the beads in the models
  • Relate DNA structure to protein structure using the RAFT Idea Sheet Codon Necklaces

Learning Targets

  • Students will be able to use Chargaff’s rule (base-pairing) to predict nucleotide sequences for complementary strands of DNA
  • Students will be able to build and use a DNA model to describe the major function of DNA in cells

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share feedback with each.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings.

Lesson Overview

Brief description of the lesson and standards addressed (by abbreviation). Describe specific aspects of standard that are being addressed if not all aspects are addressed in the lesson.

Essential Questions:

Bullet list of guiding questions teachers should use when coaching students in the content.

Lesson Procedure:

Any teacher directions not given in the sidebar go here before Student Directions

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog. Include reference to Maker Journal page and button to link to student maker journal page.

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

External Resources

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share feedback with each.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings.

Lesson Overview

Brief description of the lesson and standards addressed (by abbreviation). Describe specific aspects of standard that are being addressed if not all aspects are addressed in the lesson.

Essential Questions:

Bullet list of guiding questions teachers should use when coaching students in the content.

Lesson Procedure:

Any teacher directions not given in the sidebar go here before Student Directions

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog. Include reference to Maker Journal page and button to link to student maker journal page.

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

 


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

External Resources

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share feedback with each.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings.

Lesson Overview

Brief description of the lesson and standards addressed (by abbreviation). Describe specific aspects of standard that are being addressed if not all aspects are addressed in the lesson.

Essential Questions:

Bullet list of guiding questions teachers should use when coaching students in the content.

Lesson Procedure:

Any teacher directions not given in the sidebar go here before Student Directions

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog. Include reference to Maker Journal page and button to link to student maker journal page.

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

 


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

External Resources

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share feedback with each.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings.

Lesson Overview

Brief description of the lesson and standards addressed (by abbreviation). Describe specific aspects of standard that are being addressed if not all aspects are addressed in the lesson.

Essential Questions:

Bullet list of guiding questions teachers should use when coaching students in the content.

Lesson Procedure:

Any teacher directions not given in the sidebar go here before Student Directions

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

Sample teacher and student dialog. Include reference to Maker Journal page and button to link to student maker journal page.

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

 


Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

External Resources

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share feedback with each.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings.

Design Challenge Overview

Give an over view of the design challenge. Example: In the culminating project, each student ideates, prototypes, tests, reiterates, and finally creates a successful ___

Essential Questions:  

  • Guiding Question #1
  • Guiding Question #2

Lesson Procedure:

Introduce the Design Challenge (Click + to open)

Sample student & Teacher Dialog. Should generate excitement and connect with Empathy phase discoveries. Teacher needs to provide criteria and constraints or develop them with students here.

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

Criteria & Constraints

Review the criteria and constraints with students.  Engineers design things using some rules about how the designs must behave or work.  These rules are called criteria.  Engineers can run out of materials, money, time to build, or space in which to build something.  In other words there are limits on how something can be built.  These limits are called constraints.  The criteria and constraints for this challenge are below.

Criteria (design requirements) Constraints (design limitations)
  • Model spans minimum of 2 ft.
  • Model must be easily put together and taken apart
  • Model can continuously hold a designated load
  • Model is portable
  • Model must be built with materials provided
  • Model must be completed and tested in the given time
  • Model must include 8 different materials in addition to fasteners and/or adhesives
  • Model must not be secured to the ground or testing area in any way

 


Ideate
Give a brief description of student activity during this phase. (Keep in mind students may choose to or need to return to this phase as the iterate)

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”


Prototype

Give a brief description of student activity during this phase. (Keep in mind students may choose to or need to return to this phase as the iterate)

Sample Student Directions (Click + to open)

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”


Test your Design

Give a brief description of student activity during this phase. (Keep in mind students may choose to or need to return to this phase as the iterate) Include references to any rubrics, criteria and constraint checklists or Maker Journal Pages included in the assessement

Student Directions (Click + to open)

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

T: “Sample Dialog.”

S: “Sample Dialog.”

 

 

Concept Quick Reference (Click + to open)

very basic overview of the fundamental concepts. Summarize important formulas, scientific phenomena, vocabulary, etc.

Design Challenge Materials

Building Materials

  • list

Connecting Materials

  • list

Tech

  • list

Other

External Resources

TITLE of Video [link to video- new window]

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

anything not covered in “active classroom” section. Any additional teacher directions or setup not included in the Lesson Procedure section. ex:
Consider selecting a few images of uses of water, drought, and results of the water crisis. Model good techniques for safe quality internet searches. Consider pre-selecting sites that yield quality information for this topic.

Active Classroom

(OPTIONAL If students should be allowed to be out of their seat, talking & collaborating, work in the makerspace)

Nudge responsibility and freedom for students. Tips for classroom management. (See Management in the active classroom book for suggestions)

 

EXAMPLE:

Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

“Unpacked” components of the standard. (bullet format)
  • Students will be able to conduct a short research project that use several sources to build knowledge about the need for and problems with freshwater transportation
  • Students will use this understanding to design more effective models of freshwater transportation

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share feedback with each.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings.