On average, every American generates 4.4 pounds of trash daily.  When about 41,500 people visit AT&T stadium for a game, some of their daily trash will end up in the stadium.  Your challenge is to build a prototype device or system that will help to reduce trash in stadiums.  

 

Educational outcomes

  • Participants will be able to identify the best characteristics of each design that can be combined into a new better solution.
  • Participants will be able to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions.

STEAM INTEGRATION

During the empathy and define stages of this challenge, participants will need to analyze the challenge of how to reduce trash.  They will specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for the needs and wants of both attendees and stadium staff (HS-ETS1-1).  As participants work through the ideate, prototype, and test phases of this challenge, they will have the opportunity to analyze data from tests to determine similarities and difference among their design solutions.  They will identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success (MS-ETS1-3).

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Unit Materials

Maker Journal Pages

Ideate – Maker Journal Page

Test – Maker Journal Page

Design Thinking Overview

Our design thinking units have five phases based on the d.school’s model. Each phase can be repeated to allow students to re-work and iterate while developing deeper understanding of the core concepts. These are the five phases of the design thinking model:

EMPATHIZE: Work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom you are designing.  Do this through observation, interaction, and immersing yourself in their experiences.

DEFINE: Process and synthesize the findings from your empathy work in order to form a user point of view that you will address with your design.

IDEATE: Explore a wide variety of possible solutions through generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and explore a range of ideas.

PROTOTYPE: Transform your ideas into a physical form so that you can experience and interact with them and, in the process, learn and develop more empathy.

TEST: Try out high-resolution products and use observations and feedback to refine prototypes, learn more about the user, and refine your original point of view.

The Design Thinking Process | ReDesigning Theater. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://dschool.stanford.edu/redesigningtheater/the-design-thinking-process/

STEAM Integrated Standards

NGSS MS-ETS1-3

Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

NGSS HS-ETS1-1

Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

 

 

Lesson Overview

Consider what generates trash in the stadium.  What generates recycling, and what generates compostables.  Let’s define the problem we are going to solve, be it creating less trash, or managing trash better.

 

Essential Questions:

What are the wants and needs of stadium visitors in relation to trash creation?

What are the wants and needs of stadium employees in relation to trash creation?

How can we reduce the quantity of trash produced by the stadium?

How can we increase the quality of systems or trash receptacles?

 

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Lead participants through the empathy phase of this challenge by discussing the trash found in stadiums.  Participants will then begin defining the problem by talking through the questions below in small groups.  Before moving onto the Ideate phase, have the group share out their views.

Student Direction

Sample facilitator (F) and participant (P) dialog

F: “Think about what types of trash we create at a baseball stadium.”  If possible, have a collection of examples to show. “What is trash, what is recyclable, and what is compostable?”

P: Food wrappers, merchandise tags and bags, food remnants, paper towels (restrooms), paper and plastic cups.

F: What are some qualitative criteria we could use for this challenge?

P: The stadium hallways are clear of trash.  Trash is sorted well into separate landfill, recycling, and compost receptacles.  The stadium looks and smells trash-free.

F: What are some quantitative criteria we could use for this challenge?

P: The amount of trash found in the proper receptacles increases.  The amount of trash generated in the stadium reduces.

F: Discuss with a partner or small group what problem you will work to solve.  Is it how much trash is generated, or how the trash is managed?

 


Lesson Materials

Pieces of trash as examples of what is found in the stadium.

Media

Maker Journal Pages

dl-student

Teacher Notes

Learning Targets

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their findings and share different ways in which they are focusing on the challenge of reducing trash.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings.

Introduce the Design Challenge

Sample participant & facilitator dialog. 

F:  We will now be designing a device or system to reduce trash in the stadium.  You will work in pairs or small groups to develop your idea, prototype it, and test your design.  As you prototype and test, you will need to adjust your idea for what works, and what needs modification.  Keep cycling through the ideate, prototype, and test phases as necessary to refine your design.

 

Criteria & Constraints

Review the criteria and constraints with students.  Engineers design things using some rules about how the designs must behave or work.  These rules are called criteria.  Engineers can run out of materials, money, time to build, or space in which to build something.  In other words there are limits on how something can be built.  These limits are called constraints.  The criteria and constraints for this challenge are below.

 

Criteria (design requirements) Constraints (design limitations)
  • Design must reduce the trash in the stadium.
  • Design must work for a population of varied age and ability.
  • Model must be built with materials provided.
  • Model must be completed and tested in the given time.

 

Ideate
Participants will discuss with teammates to determine their design plan.  (5-10 minutes)

Student Directions

F: As you develop your design ideas, keep in mind the specific problem you defined in the last phase.  What are some problems you are working to solve?

P: Reducing trash in the hallways.  Reducing trash in the stands.  Reducing food waste.  Lack of incentive for patrons to take care of their own trash.

F: Draw your ideas. dl-student

 

Prototype

Participants will create a prototype if they are designing a device.  If they are designing a new system, they will create a model to represent their idea. (15-20 minutes)

Student Directions

F: “You will now have the opportunity to either build a prototype of your device, or create a model of your new system to reduce trash.  You may use any materials from your makerspace-in-a-box.”

P: Participants will spend this time actively building with their partner or small groups.

 

Test your Design

Participants will be testing their designs, through demonstrating to another group.  Once they test, participants will modify their design.  (15-25 minutes) 

Student Directions

F: “You will now have time to test out your design.  Each group will partner with another group.  If you created a device, demonstrate how that will work.  If you created a new system, walk everyone through your model.  Give each other feedback including what you liked, what you would change, and any parts that you think have potential and need to be developed more.  Discuss as a group what is similar and what is different in your designs.  Then identify characteristics that can be combined from your designs into a new and better solution.”

P: Participants will test designs, and modify to improve. dl-student


Design Challenge Materials

Makerspace-in-a-Box kit

Pieces of trash as examples of what is found in the stadium. (For participants to test their design if applicable)

 

Media

Maker Journal Pages

dl-studentdl-student

 

Teacher Notes

Active Classroom

 

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Help students become successful and care for the success of others by asking them to predict problems that might arise in the active environment and ask them to suggest strategies for their own behavior that will ensure a positive working environment for all students and teachers.

Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Student groups review their makerspace journal and summarize their learning in a group discussion, including how they could use their feedback.

Peer Assessment

Student groups discuss and compare their designs.  Students should also share the difficulties that they discovered in working through this design challenge.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individual groups as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their designs for reducing trash in the stadium.